Topic Review
Architecture and Challenges of Industrial Internet of Things
The inherent complexities of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) architecture make its security and privacy issues becoming critically challenging. Numerous surveys have been published to review IoT security issues and challenges. The studies gave a general overview of IIoT security threats or a detailed analysis that explicitly focuses on specific technologies. However, recent studies fail to analyze the gap between security requirements of these technologies and their deployed countermeasure in the industry recently. Whether recent industry countermeasure is still adequate to address the security challenges of IIoT environment are questionable.
  • 428
  • 21 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Cloud-Fog-Edge Computing for Smart Agriculture
Cloud Computing is a well-established paradigm for building service-centric systems. However, ultra-low latency, high bandwidth, security, and real-time analytics are limitations in Cloud Computing when analysing and providing results for a large amount of data. Fog and Edge Computing offer solutions to the limitations of Cloud Computing. The number of agricultural domain applications that use the combination of Cloud, Fog, and Edge is increasing in the last few decades.
  • 423
  • 08 Oct 2021
Topic Review
GIS and IoT Integration
Internet-of-Things (IoT) concentrates on enabling communication between Things. It is a broadband network that uses standard communication protocols. Geospatial Information System (GIS) is a powerful set of tools that deal with capturing geospatial data, managing that data in a database, analyzing and pattern recognition, and finally visualizing information. IoT, as an emerging technology along with GIS, can result in advanced and user-friendly features in Smart Cities.
  • 397
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Augmented Reality in Agriculture
Augmented Reality (AR) applications have become prevalent within smart industry manufacturing and wider popular culture sectors over the last decade, yet use of AR technology within an agricultural setting is still within its infancy. 
  • 331
  • 04 Jan 2022
Topic Review
FPGA in Decimal Arithmetic
Decimal operations are executed with slow software-based decimal arithmetic functions. For the fast execution of decimal operations, dedicated hardware units have been proposed and designed in FPGA. Decimal addition and multiplication is found in most decimal-based applications and so its design is very important for fast execution. This entry describes recent solutions for decimal multiplication and addition in FPGA.
  • 320
  • 16 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Hardware Heritage
Hardware heritage is the history of both hardware and software. Human knowledge, experience, and skills are translated into computation models (binary code) in software and computer environment (‘digital ecosystem’). The history of software is a history of how different communities of practitioners ‘put their world into a computer’.
  • 250
  • 23 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Embedded Machine Learning
Embedded machine learning (EML) can be applied in the areas of accurate computer vision schemes, reliable speech recognition, innovative healthcare, robotics, and more. However, there exists a critical drawback in the efficient implementation of ML algorithms targeting embedded applications. Machine learning algorithms are generally computationally and memory intensive, making them unsuitable for resource-constrained environments such as embedded and mobile devices. In order to efficiently implement these compute and memory-intensive algorithms within the embedded and mobile computing space, innovative optimization techniques are required at the algorithm and hardware levels. 
  • 228
  • 01 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Blockchain and e-Governance in Smart Cities
Blockchain has emerged as a transformational technology with the ability to disrupt and evolve multiple domains. As a decentralized, immutable distributed ledger, Blockchain technology is one of the most recent entrants to the comprehensive ideology of Smart Cities. The rise of urbanization and increased citizen participation have led to various technology integrations in present-day cities. E-governance in smart cities is a type of governance that aims to make effective use of information and communication technology (ICT) to improve services provided by the government to people and will increase participation in decision-making and policy formulation. This will improve governance and advance the digital transformation of government.
  • 226
  • 12 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Embedded Brain Computer Interface
We attempt to summarize the last two decades of embedded Brain-Computer Interface mostly because of the electroencephalography influence on these systems. Numerous noninvasive EBCIs have been developed, described, and tested. Noninvasive nature of the EEG-based BCIs made them the most popular BCI systems.
  • 173
  • 15 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Olfactory Displays in Education and Training
Olfactory displays are defined as human–computer interfaces that generate and diffuse or transmit one or more odors to a user for a purpose. Computer-generated odors, in conjunction with other sensory information, have been proposed and used in education and training settings over the past four decades, supporting memorization of information, helping immerse learners into 3D educational environments, and complementing or supplementing human senses.
  • 172
  • 19 Nov 2021
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