Topic Review
Cold Plasma
Plasma is referred to as the fourth state of matter. It is an ionized gas comprising several excited atomic, molecular, ionic, and radical species, co-existing with electrons, positive and negative ions, free radicals, gas atoms, molecules in the ground or excited state, and quanta of electromagnetic radiation (UV photons and visible light).
  • 1.9K
  • 03 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Cold Plasma Treatment on Biopolymer-Based Films
Biopolymers, like polysaccharides and proteins, are sustainable and green materials with excellent film-forming potential. Bio-based films have gained a lot of attention and are believed to be an alternative to plastics in next-generation food packaging. Compared to conventional plastics, biopolymers inherently have certain limitations like hydrophilicity, poor thermo-mechanical, and barrier properties. Therefore, the modification of biopolymers or their films provide an opportunity to develop packaging materials with desired characteristics. Among different modification approaches, the application of cold plasma has been a very efficient technology to enhance the functionality and interfacial characteristics of biopolymers. Cold plasma is biocompatible, shows uniformity in treatment, and is suitable for heat-sensitive components.
  • 603
  • 21 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Communication Signal Delay and the Power Grid
In the electricity grid, communication delays arise at a number of stages, which include signal transmission from phasor measurement units (PMUs) to management centers, from management centers to controllers, analog-to-digital conversion, computing on overall entry adjustable, and phase synchronization of alerts through the Global Positioning System (GPS). Such delays will have an effect on controllers and device performance.
  • 1.0K
  • 15 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Complementary Foods
Food safety is imperative, especially for infants and young children because of their underdeveloped immune systems. This requires adequate nutritious food with appropriate amounts of macro- and micronutrients. Currently, a well-established system for infant food is enforced by the regulatory bodies, but no clear system exists for complementary food, which is consumed by children from the age of 6 month to 24 months. As the child grows beyond 6 months, the need for nutrients increases, and if the nutritional needs are not fulfilled, it can lead to health problems, such as stunted growth, weak immune system, and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, it is important to have regulatory bodies monitoring complementary food in a similar capacity as is required for infant formula. 
  • 1.9K
  • 23 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Composting is the most adaptable and fruitful method for managing biodegradable solid wastes; it is a crucial agricultural practice that contributes to recycling farm and agricultural wastes. Composting is profitable for various plant, animal, and synthetic wastes, from residential bins to large corporations. Composting and agricultural waste management (AWM) practices flourish in developing countries, especially Pakistan.
  • 710
  • 16 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Computer Vision and Convolutional Neural Networks
Computer vision (CV) combined with a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) has emerged as a reliable analytical method to effectively characterize and quantify high-throughput phenotyping of different grain crops, including rice, wheat, corn, and soybean. In addition to the ability to rapidly obtain information on plant organs and abiotic stresses, and the ability to segment crops from weeds, such techniques have been used to detect pests and plant diseases and to identify grain varieties. The development of corresponding imaging systems to assess the phenotypic parameters, yield, and quality of crop plants will increase the confidence of stakeholders in grain crop cultivation, thereby bringing technical and economic benefits to advanced agriculture.
  • 1.4K
  • 14 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Computer Vision in Self-Steering Tractors
Agricultural machinery, such as tractors, is meant to operate for many hours in large areas and perform repetitive tasks. The automatic navigation of agricultural vehicles can ensure the high intensity of automation of cultivation tasks, the enhanced precision of navigation between crop structures, an increase in operation safety and a decrease in human labor and operation costs.
  • 638
  • 24 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Control Algorithms of Agriculture Autonomous All-Terrain Vehicles
This review paper discusses the development trends of agricultural autonomous all-terrain vehicles (AATVs) from four cornerstones, such as (1) control strategy and algorithms, (2) sensors, (3) data communication tools and systems, and (4) controllers and actuators, based on 221 papers published in peer-reviewed journals for 1960–2023. The paper highlights a comparative analysis of commonly employed control methods and algorithms by highlighting their advantages and disadvantages. It gives comparative analyses of sensors, data communication tools, actuators, and hardware-embedded controllers. In recent years, many novel developments in AATVs have been made due to advancements in wireless and remote communication, high-speed data processors, sensors, computer vision, and broader applications of AI tools. Technical advancements in fully autonomous control of AATVs remain limited, requiring research into accurate estimation of terrain mechanics, identifying uncertainties, and making fast and accurate decisions, as well as utilizing wireless communication and edge cloud computing. Furthermore, most of the developments are at the research level and have many practical limitations due to terrain and weather conditions.  
  • 101
  • 21 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Critical Infrastructures in the Past, Present and Future
Critical infrastructures are those material resources, services, information technology systems, networks and infrastructure assets that, if damaged or destroyed, would cause serious repercussions on the crucial functions of society, including the supply chain, health, security and the economic or social well-being of the state and the population. 
  • 373
  • 28 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Cynara cardunculus L. var. altilis Petioles
Cynara cardunculus L. is a species that belongs to the Asteraceae family, commonly designated as cardoon, and comprises three botanical varieties: var. altilis DC, var. scolymus (L.) Fiori, and var. sylvestris (Lamk) Fiori. This species is widely used in Mediterranean cuisine and folk medicine due to its nutritional composition, choleretic, hypocholesterolemic, and diuretic properties and effectiveness in the treatment of hepatic diseases.
  • 505
  • 20 Dec 2021
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