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Composting is the most adaptable and fruitful method for managing biodegradable solid wastes; it is a crucial agricultural practice that contributes to recycling farm and agricultural wastes. Composting is profitable for various plant, animal, and synthetic wastes, from residential bins to large corporations. Composting and agricultural waste management (AWM) practices flourish in developing countries, especially Pakistan.
|Waste||Physicochemical Characteristics||Method||Quality Control||Final Products and Uses||Outcomes||References|
|Barley waste||Composting in an open-air pile that was rotated 7 times in 105 d.
Average temperatures of 65–68 °C with relative humidity of 45–65%.
|Maximum temperatures of 65–68 °C with humidity of 45–65%.||Composting||Fertilizer||Micronutrient absorption favored at lowest doses. Doses >10 mg/L inhibited it and depressed growth at highest levels.|||
|Barley straw waste||Conductance (compost to water, w/w: 1:3).
pH (in water and 0.01 M CaCl)
Quality of dry matter (% fw, 105 °C)
(% dw, 480 °C/16 h) in triplicate.
|Heterotrophic mesophilic bacteria.||Composting||Composting of cow and swine waste with barley straw.||1—C/N ratio declined from 22.6–28.5 to 12.7 during composting.
2—Approximately 11–27% and 13–23% of total C and N were lost after 7 d of intensive composting and 62–66% and 23–37% for whole composting, respectively.
|Barley waste||Final compost pH was 8.7 and C/N ratio was 13.
No. of seeds germinated in co-compost depending on grains used.
|Total OM was estimated by weight loss on ignition at 540 °C/16 h, and moisture on drying at 105 °C/24 h.||1—Composting
|OM composition was high in barley wastes and solid poultry manure.||OM content of barley waste was high (86.3% dw) and had N deficiency.|||
|Wheat straw waste||Compost contributed 10% of its total N for plant growth during growing season.||During growing season, compost supplied 10% of available N to plants.||1—Mature composting
|Additional fertilizer||1—At 126.5 h, total H yield of 68.1 mL H/g TVS was 136-fold higher than raw wheat straw wastes.
2—Substrate pretreatment was essential in turning wheat straw wastes into biohydrogen by composts producing hydrogen.
|Rice straw||Lowest C/N ratios found (17–24).
Pathogenic micro-organisms were extracted from rice straw by heating at 62 °C/48 h.
|Micro-organisms respiration behavior was determined on separate initial C/N (17, 24, and 40) raw materials.||Composting||Development of paper, building materials, soil incorporation, manure, energy supply, and animal feed.||Rice straw residues was rich in OM (80%), oxidizable organic C (34%), and C/N ratio (very volatile and average of 50), suggesting a potential C supply for micro-organisms that can tolerate composting conditions.|||
|Wheat straw waste||Overall C and N of materials was estimated.
Wheat straw has C/N ratio of 100 and cover-grass hay has C/N ratio of 15.
|Weight loss of compost samples oven-dried at 80 °C/24 h to assess water content.||1—C1- Automatic NC analyzer connected to isotope mass spectrometer measured total N and C.
2—NH4 and NO analysis—Traditional calorimetric approaches of flow-injection analysis.
|Fertilizer||1—pH ranged 7.6–8.9, with highest values after 3–4 weeks.
2—Weight loss after weeks of composting reduced by 44–45% of original weight.
3—After 7 1/2 weeks, weight loss was 61–63% of actual weight.
4—4% N rose from 2.8 to 4.6%.
|Wheat straw waste||pH = 6.9
Negligible CaCO3 content
Organic C content of 11.0 g C/kg dry soil
|Three types of UWC were applied
compost (BIO) from green waste and source-separated organic fraction.
from mixture of 70% green waste and 30% sewage sludge.
solid waste compost.
|Soil conditioner or fertilizer||1—Simulated N fluxes indicated that organic amendments resulted in additional leaching of up to 8 kg N/ha/year.
2—After many years, composts mineralized 3–8% of their original organic N content. Composts with slower N release delivered more N to crops.
3—CERES used to help choose best time to apply compost.
|Rice flakes||pH = 7||Aspergillus spp.||Composting||Edible products||1—As opposed to inorganic N, organic N contributed to higher enzyme production.
2—Optimum enzymatic activity was observed at 55 °C/pH 5.
3—Presence of Ca increased enzyme activity, while EDTA presence had opposite effect.
|Rice straw||Temp., air circulation, moisture, and nutrients should all be appropriately managed. Initial optimal composting ratio of C/N was 25–30.||Psychrophilic and mesophilic micro-organisms.||AnC||Combination of swine manure and rice straw as fertilizer.||1—Organic compound biodegradation caused temperature increase to 40–50 °C.
2—pH in all composts were constant and steady.
|Rice straw||Gravimetric approach to assess moisture content. In-house approach was used to evaluate P and K amounts.||Composting in shaded environment on premium Agro products premises. Two therapies: compost piles with EM (C1) and without EM (C2).||Composting||Final compost in matured stage range could be used without limitation.||Compost treated with EM produces more N, P, and K (P 0.05) than compost without EM treatment.|||
|Rice straw||Individually homogenized substrates and inoculum were deposited at 4 °C for further use.||Effect of characteristics on bio gasification was calculated using Box–Behnken experimental design combined with response surface methodology.||AnC||Research contributes to understanding of intertwined symptoms and microbial activity of Alzheimer’s disease.||Bio-gasification of SS-AD of composting RS had significant interactive impact on temperature, ISC, and C/N ratio. Highest biogas output achieved at 35.6 °C with 20% ISC and 29.6:1 C/N ratio|||
|Properties||Total Organic C
|pH||Total P (g/kg)||Total K (g/kg)||Reference|
|Rice straw||39.20 1||0.64 1||61.3||7.6||0.21 1||1.12 1|||
|Wheat straw biochar||-||1.38 1||38||7.03||0.45 1||1.061|||