Topic Review
Fish Pond Water Quality
The spread of disease caused by the presence of bacteria, algae, protozoa, and fungi in a fish pond can cause biological pollution and reduce fish product production. Water can quickly lose its ability to support life, reproduction, waste excretion, growth, and feed the fish in fish ponds. The needs of the fish, the water quality, and factors for managing the water quality should be understood by those wishing to be successful fish farmers.
  • 350
  • 30 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Acoustic Performance-Based Design
Current development in digital design, combined with the growing awareness of the importance of building performance, had drawn attention to performance-based design (PBD) in architecture. PBD benefits both design workflow and outcome, allowing one to control the performance of the design proposal since early design phases. 
  • 318
  • 26 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Measuring Grain Loss during Harvest in Paddy Field
A combine harvester has been widely employed for harvesting paddy in Malaysia. However, it is one of the most challenging machines to operate when harvesting grain crops. Improper handling of a combine harvester can lead to a significant amount of grain loss. Any losses during the harvesting process would result in less income for the farmers.
  • 297
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
3D Printed Electromagnetic Vibration Harvesters
Energy harvesting is the utilisation of ambient energy in order to power electronics such as wireless sensor nodes (WSN) or wearables without the need of batteries. This allows to operate the node over a much longer time period compared to battery-powered devices along with lower maintenance efforts. Furthermore, the low-maintenance requirements allow to operate these WSNs in environments with limited or no accessibility.
  • 296
  • 05 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Plant
Hyperspectral remote sensing provides image data with very high spectral resolution. This high resolution allows subtle differences in plant health to be recognized. Such a multidimensional data space, generated by hyperspectral sensors, has given rise to new approaches and methods for analyzing hyperspectral data.
  • 267
  • 31 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Irrigation-Water and Cotton
A decrease in water resources, as well as changing environmental conditions, calls for efficient irrigation-water management in cotton-production systems. Cotton (Gossypium sp.) is an important cash crop in many countries, and it is used more than any other fiber in the world. 
  • 266
  • 06 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Deep Learning Algorithms in Agriculture
The field of agriculture is one of the most important fields in which the application of deep learning still needs to be explored, as it has a direct impact on human well-being. In particular, there is a need to explore how deep learning models can be used as a tool for optimal planting, land use, yield improvement, production/disease/pest control, and other activities. The vast amount of data received from sensors in smart farms makes it possible to use deep learning as a model for decision-making in this field. In agriculture, no two environments are exactly alike, which makes testing, validating, and successfully implementing such technologies much more complex than in most other industries. 
  • 264
  • 18 Mar 2022
Topic Review
A city Multi-Floor Manufacturing Cluster
Multi-floor manufacturing cluster (MFMC) comprise production and service enterprises of various types of ownership, mainly SMEs, with different production orientations, with the presence of small-scale in-house equipment. This feature of MFMC promotes business competition, allowing for creating collaborative and networked organizations that can happen at some stages of development and can reach a level of a virtual manufacturing network based on Digital Twins models to fulfil customer orders.
  • 262
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
‘Helete Güneşi’, a New Walnut Cultivar
‘Helete Güneşi’ was selected among different genotypes obtained from crossing ‘Maraş 18’ × ‘Chandler’ in Turkey. The present study compares phenological and pomological traits of ‘Helete Güneşi’ with those of its parents so as to scale their performances. ‘Helete Güneşi’ staged leaf out on 22 April, whereas its parents, ‘Chandler’ and ‘Maraş 18’, did on 20 and 12 April, respectively. The harvest date of ‘Helete Güneşi’ was as early as 17 September, whereas ‘Chandler’ and ‘Maraş 18’ began to be harvested on 5 October and 15 September, respectively. Defoliation in ‘Helete Güneşi’ occurred about 1 month earlier than ‘Chandler’. The nut weight and kernel percentage of ‘Helete Güneşi’ were 13.41 g and 53.39%, respectively, whereas in ‘Chandler’ the values were 12.73 g and 48.23%, respectively, but were 14.62 g and 53.76% in ‘Maraş 18’. ‘Helete Güneşi’ had a higher yield value compared to its parents. The results demonstrated that ‘Helete Güneşi’ has superior traits in being selected for late leafing date, early harvest date, high yield, and good nut quality. Therefore, it can be considered as a valuable genetic resource in future breeding programs around the world.
  • 257
  • 02 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Complementary Foods
Food safety is imperative, especially for infants and young children because of their underdeveloped immune systems. This requires adequate nutritious food with appropriate amounts of macro- and micronutrients. Currently, a well-established system for infant food is enforced by the regulatory bodies, but no clear system exists for complementary food, which is consumed by children from the age of 6 month to 24 months. As the child grows beyond 6 months, the need for nutrients increases, and if the nutritional needs are not fulfilled, it can lead to health problems, such as stunted growth, weak immune system, and cardiovascular diseases. Hence, it is important to have regulatory bodies monitoring complementary food in a similar capacity as is required for infant formula. 
  • 250
  • 23 Sep 2021
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