Topic Review
Industry 4.0 in Supply Chain
Industry 4.0 is better known as the fourth industrial revolution and describes a future production system’s vision. In 2011, the idea of Industry 4.0 was first given and implemented by the German government for supporting automation in manufacturing. The fourth industrial revolution (Industry 4.0) focuses on enabling automation to integrate all manufacturing industries’ systems to achieve sustainability. There are many disruptive technologies such as the Internet of things (IoT). This means that all the devices, machines, and processes in supply chains are digitally connected through an internet connection and share the real-time information of all the processes. The Internet of things (IoT) integrates different technologies such as sensors, networks, algorithms, and applications. The IoT enables businesses to improve their supply chain network and gain better productivity. Cyber–physical system (C.P.S.) is another fundamental technology of industry 4.0. C.P.S. can be implemented in many industries such as healthcare, logistics, and automobiles. From an operational view, logistics is the critical function of any business that engages the supply chain movements. A cyber-physical system allows the supply chain network to use networking, computation, and physical processes to add value in the production process to achieve competitiveness. Another concept of Industry 4.0 concerns automatic guided vehicles (A.G.V.), which are widely used by many companies.
  • 534
  • 01 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Lane Detection and Tracking
Lane detection and tracking are the advanced key features of the advanced driver assistance system. Lane detection is the process of detecting white lines on the roads. Lane tracking is the process of assisting the vehicle to remain in the desired path, and it controls the motion model by using previously detected lane markers.
  • 335
  • 25 Oct 2021
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Two-Lane Highways: Indispensable Rural Mobility
Two-lane highways refer to roadways consisting of two lanes in the cross section, one for each direction of travel. Occasionally, passing lanes may be added to one or two sides of the roadway extending the cross section to three or four lanes at those locations. In this entry, two-lane highways strictly refer to roads in rural areas meeting the previous definition and do not include urban and suburban streets.
  • 268
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Communication-based Train Control(CBTC) System
Nowadays, the communication-based train control(CBTC) system is commonly used in the urban rail transit system all over the world, and the CBTC systems currently operating worldwide are the "Products" of advances in Internet of Things and Artificial Intelligence. 
  • 259
  • 04 Apr 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Characteristics, Impacts and Trends of Urban Transportation
Economic growth, urban development and the prosperity of the automobile industry have driven a huge shift in global urban transportation from walking to public transportation and then to automobiles. Private mobility has become an important part of residents’ daily trips. Cities, especially automobile-dependent cities, face a variety of negative impacts such as increased commuting distances, higher congestion costs, traffic accidents, traffic pollution including climate change, etc. Therefore, how to balance the relationship between people’s growing demand for private motorization with the development of urbanization, modernization and motorization and the huge economic, social and environmental costs brought about by them, so as to realize the sustainable development of cities and transportation, is the main problem facing cities around the world. The entry focuses on trends in the sustainable development of urban transportation such as restrictions in private car ownership and use, electrification of urban transportation, intelligent transportation systems (including shared mobility, customized buses and Mobility as a Service/MaaS) and transit-oriented development (TOD). China, as the largest global automobile producer and consumer, represents and leads the growth and evolution of other emerging countries.
  • 246
  • 15 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Driver Drowsiness Detection Systems
Continuous advancements in computing technology and artificial intelligence have led to improvements in driver monitoring systems. Numerous experimental studies have collected real driver drowsiness data and applied various artificial intelligence algorithms and feature combinations with the goal of significantly enhancing the performance of these systems in real-time. 
  • 240
  • 23 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Highway-rail grade crossing (HRGC) accidents
Highway-rail grade crossing (HRGC) accidents pose a serious risk of safety to highway users, including pedestrians trying to cross HRGCs. A significant increase in the number of HRGC accidents globally calls for greater research efforts, which are not limited to the analysis of accidents at HRGCs but also understanding user perception, driver behavior, potential conflicting areas at crossings, effectiveness of countermeasures and user perception towards them. HRGC safety is one of the priority areas in the State of Florida, since the state HRGCs experienced a total of 429 injuries and 146 fatalities between 2010 and 2019 with a significant increase in HRGC accidents over the last years.
  • 167
  • 15 Aug 2021
Topic Review
W-band MIMO GB-SAR for Bridge
This is a fast MIMO-GBSAR (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Ground-Based Synthetic Aperture Radar) operating in W-band (77 GHz). The radar can complete a scan in less than 8 s. Furthermore, as its overall dimension is smaller than 230 mm, it can be easily fixed to the head of a camera tripod, which makes its deployment in the field very easy, even by a single operator. 
  • 128
  • 27 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Motorcycle Market
In many cities, urbanization has led to a rapid increase in the demand for mobility. Most of this new demand has been satisfied by the individual private transport industry, within which motorcycles have an important share: around 30% of the vehicles in the world are motorcycles. Thus, the motorcycle market has experienced an upward trend, especially in developing countries. That uncontrolled growth brings along mobility, accidents, and environment-related issues that concern policy-makers. Research trends regarding this matter evidence that greenhouse gas emissions, sustainability, environmental impact, and developing countries are the topics of greater interest for researchers. In addition, taking into account the needs of modern cities, sustainable modes of transport such as electric and shared mobility are compulsory as a priority on governments' agendas. 
  • 114
  • 26 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Commercialization of Electric Vehicles
Electric Vehicles (EVs) are a promising alternative to internal combustion engine vehicles as the city is transitioning to clean energy.
  • 107
  • 10 Feb 2022
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