Topic Review
Six-Gear Roadmap towards Smart Factory
The fourth industrial revolution is the transformation of manufacturing into smart manufacturing. Advanced industrial digital technologies that make the trend Industry 4.0 are considered as the transforming force that will enable this transformation. However, these technologies need to be connected, integrated and used effectively to create value and to provide insights for data driven manufacturing. Smart manufacturing is a journey and requires a roadmap to guide manufacturing organizations for its adoption. The proposed roadmap is a simple holistic management strategy for an Industry 4.0 implementation journey. It serves as a strategic practical tool for rapid adoption of Industry 4.0 technologies. It bridges the gap between the advanced technologies and their application in manufacturing industry, especially for SMEs.
  • 643
  • 06 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Submarine Cables Radial Water Barrier
The submarine cables manufacturing industry is growing very rapidly. Solutions used so far, usually adapted from designs of land cables, do not fulfil the new, more demanding requirements. The phenomenon of water ingress into insulation and its absorption are basic factors determining the service life of submarine cables. The radial water barrier is the only effective component of cable design that may guarantee the required minimum 30-year longevity of submarine cables.
  • 492
  • 01 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Laser Welding Based on Digital Twins
The benefits of laser welding include higher production values, deeper penetration, higher welding speeds, adaptability, and higher power density. These characteristics make laser welding a superior process. Many industries are aware of the benefits of switching to lasers. Laser welding of aluminum alloys presents a daunting challenge, mainly because aluminum is a less reliable material for welding than other commercial metals such as steel, primarily because of its physical properties: high thermal conductivity, high reflectivity, and low viscosity.
  • 454
  • 24 May 2022
Topic Review
Kraft Lignin
After cellulose, lignin is the second most abundant biopolymer worldwide. Lignins are non-toxic and renewable, and hence may play an essential role during the change-over from a fossil-based to a bio-based economy. Lignin isolation from Kraft cooking is state of the art, the three state of the art processes are summarized and discussed, further the concept of sequerntial liquid lignin recovery is introduced.
  • 437
  • 12 May 2021
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Novel Bioactive Extraction and Nano-Encapsulation
An extraction technology works on the principle of two consecutive steps that involves mixture of solute with solvent and the movement of soluble compounds from the cell into the solvent and its consequent diffusion and extraction. The conventional extraction techniques are mostly based on the use of mild/high temperatures (50–90 °C) that can cause thermal degradation, are dependent on the mass transfer rate, being reflected on long extraction times, high costs, low extraction efficiency, with consequent low extraction yields. Due to these disadvantages, it is of interest to develop non-thermal extraction methods, such as microwave, ultrasounds, supercritical fluids (mostly using carbon dioxide, SC-CO2), and high hydrostatic pressure-assisted extractions which works on the phenomena of minimum heat exposure with reduced processing time, thereby minimizing the loss of bioactive compounds during extraction. Further, to improve the stability of these extracted compounds, nano-encapsulation is required. Nano-encapsulation is a process which forms a thin layer of protection against environmental degradation and retains the nutritional and functional qualities of bioactive compounds in nano-scale level capsules by employing fats, starches, dextrins, alginates, protein and lipid materials as encapsulation materials.
  • 299
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Knowledge Integration in Smart Factories
Knowledge integration is well explained by the human–organization–technology (HOT) approach known from knowledge management. This approach contains the horizontal and vertical interaction and communication between employees, human-to-machine, but also machine-to-machine. Different organizational structures and processes are supported with the help of appropriate technologies and suitable data processing and integration techniques. In a Smart Factory, manufacturing systems act largely autonomously on the basis of continuously collected data. The technical design concerns the networking of machines, their connectivity and the interaction between human and machine as well as machine-to-machine. Within a Smart Factory, machines can be considered as intelligent manufacturing systems. Such manufacturing systems can autonomously adapt to events through the ability to intelligently analyze data and act as adaptive manufacturing systems that consider changes in production, the supply chain and customer requirements. Inter-connected physical devices, sensors, actuators, and controllers form the building block of the Smart Factory, which is called the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT uses different data processing solutions, such as cloud computing, fog computing, or edge computing, to fuse and process data. This is accomplished in an integrated and cross-device manner.
  • 256
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Silicon Micro-Strip Detectors
Silicon micro-strip detectors are fundamental tools for the high energy physics. Each detector is formed by a large set of parallel narrow strips of special surface treatments (diode junctions) on a slab of very high quality silicon crystals. Their development and use required a large amount of work and research. A very synthetic view is given of these important components and of their applications. Some details are devoted to the basic subject of the track reconstruction in silicon strip trackers. Recent demonstrations substantially modified the usual understanding of this argument.
  • 251
  • 18 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Aluminium friction-stir welding with nanoparticles
Welding is a widely used and critical joining process in fabrication industries and consumes a lot of energy and materials. Friction stir welding process is most commonly and emerging process in solid state processes. In FSW, heat for welding is generated with pressure applied between the rotational tool and base metal, leading to plastic deformation without melting of the base metal and without change in the primary microstructure of the base metal. Aluminium and its alloys have been seen to be a viable and, in some cases, superior alternative to steel. the FSW process occurs below the melting temperature of the Al alloys, resulting in avoidance of metal solidification defects, less deformation, porosity and cracks, and improved mechanical integrity of the joints. For improving mechanical properties, nanoparticles have commonly been used as reinforcement particles, as their size leads to uniform dispersion, grain refinement and reducing joint flaws.
  • 227
  • 20 Apr 2021
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Machine Learning for Additive Manufacturing
Additive manufacturing (AM) is the name given to a family of manufacturing processes where materials are joined to make parts from 3D modelling data, generally in a layer-upon-layer manner. AM is rapidly increasing in industrial adoption for the manufacture of end-use parts, which is therefore pushing for the maturation of design, process, and production techniques. Machine learning (ML) is a branch of artificial intelligence concerned with training programs to self-improve and has applications in a wide range of areas, such as computer vision, prediction, and information retrieval. Many of the problems facing AM can be categorised into one or more of these application areas. Studies have shown ML techniques to be effective in improving AM design, process, and production but there are limited industrial case studies to support further development of these techniques.
  • 200
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Data-Driven Production Logistics
A data-driven approach in production logistics is adopted as a response to challenges such as low visibility and system rigidity. within data-driven production logistics, data is the backbone of the system and all the components are bound together with data. Any decision is made based on data rather than intuition or even experience. All production logistics related activities are supported by data, which is constantly collected from data sources such as machines, human resources, sensors, actuators, etc. A data-driven approach facilitates transition towards a smart, autonomous production logistics system.
  • 185
  • 28 Apr 2021
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