Topic Review
Transparent Solar Windows
Many modern glass and window products are based on metal-dielectric coatings, which can control properties such as thermal emissivity, heat gain, colour, and transparency. These can also enable solar energy harvesting through PV integration, if the glazing structure is purpose-designed, to include luminescent materials and special microstructures. Recently, significant progress has been demonstrated in building integrated transparent solar windows, which are expected to add momentum towards the development of smart cities. These window systems are, at present in 2019, the only type of transparent and clear construction materials capable of providing significant energy savings in buildings, simultaneously with renewable energy generation.
  • 1305
  • 11 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Bessel Beam
Diffraction is a phenomenon related to the wave nature of light and arises when a propagating wave comes across an obstacle. Consequently, the wave can be transformed in amplitude or phase and diffraction occurs. Those parts of the wavefront avoiding an obstacle form a diffraction pattern after interfering with each other. In this review paper, we have discussed the topic of non-diffractive beams, explicitly Bessel beams. Such beams provide some resistance to diffraction and hence are hypothetically a phenomenal alternate to Gaussian beams in several circumstances. Several outstanding applications are coined to Bessel beams and have been employed in commercial applications. We have discussed several hot applications based on these magnificent beams such as optical trapping, material processing, free-space long-distance self-healing beams, optical coherence tomography, superresolution, sharp focusing, polarization transformation, increased depth of focus, birefringence detection based on astigmatic transformed BB and encryption in optical communication. According to our knowledge, each topic presented in this entry is justifiably explained.
  • 1014
  • 09 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Piezoelectric Transducers Energy Conversion Network
Conversion between mechanical energy and electrical energy is critically important in industrial applications. Piezoelectric materials are unique for their ability in electric–mechanical transduction by applications of piezoelectric transducers that are usually spherical, cylindrical, or schistose. This topic review presents the most recent development of a piezoelectric transducers energy conversion network.
  • 889
  • 31 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Ultrasensitive Magnetic Field Sensors
One of the cutting-edge topics today is the use of magnetic field sensors for applications such as magnetocardiography, magnetotomography, magnetomyography, magnetoneurography, or their application in point-of-care devices. Types of magnetic field sensors include direct current superconducting quantum interference devices, search coil, fluxgate, magnetoelectric, giant magneto-impedance, anisotropic/giant/tunneling magnetoresistance, optically pumped, cavity optomechanical, Hall effect, magnetoelastic, spin wave interferometry, and those based on the behavior of nitrogen-vacancy centers in the atomic lattice of diamond. Current developments of magnetometry in biological diagnostics are revised in review paper DOI: 10.3390/s20061569.
  • 868
  • 11 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Thin-Film Magnetoelastic Materials Based Devices
Thin-film magnetoelastic materials, which couple the magnetization and strain together, have recently attracted ever-increasing attention due to their key roles in magnetoelectric applications. This review starts with the fabrication and characterization techniques in the field of magnetoelastic materials and introduces various kinds of devices utilizing ME effect.
  • 806
  • 04 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Progress of 2D Semiconductor-based photocatalysts
A complete view of basic principles and mechanisms with regard to improving the structure stability, physical and chemical properties of the low dimensional semiconductor-based photocatalysts is presented here. Various 2D semiconductor-based photocatalysts show a high electrochemical property and photocatalytic performance due to their ultrathin character, high specific surface area with more activity sites, tunable bandgap to absorb sunlight and versatile options in structural assembly with other nanosheets. At present, most photocatalysts still need rare or expensive noble metals to improve the photocatalytic activity, which inhibits their commercial-scale application extremely. Thus, developing less costly, earth-abundant semiconductor-based photocatalysts with the efficient conversion of sunlight energy remains the primary challenge. A concise overview of different types of 2D semiconductor-mediated photocatalysts is given to figure out the advantages and disadvantages for mentioned semiconductor-based photocatalysis, including the structural property and stability, synthesize method, electrochemical property, and optical properties for H2/O2 production half-reaction along with overall water splitting.
  • 775
  • 21 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Exercise and Cartilage Regeneration Therapy
In response to exercise, articular chondrocytes increase their production of glycosaminoglycans, bone morphogenic proteins, and anti-inflammatory cytokines and decrease their production of proinflammatory cytokines and matrix-degrading metalloproteinases. These changes are associated with improvements in cartilage organization and reductions in cartilage degeneration. Studies in humans indicate that exercise enhances joint recruitment of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and upregulates their expression of osteogenic and chondrogenic genes, osteogenic microRNAs, and osteogenic growth factors. Rodent experiments demonstrate that exercise enhances the osteogenic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells while diminishing their adipogenic potential, and that exercise done after stem cell implantation may benefit stem cell transplant viability. Physical exercise also exerts a beneficial effect on the skeletal system by decreasing immune cell production of osteoclastogenic cytokines interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ, while increasing their production of antiosteoclastogenic cytokines interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-β.
  • 720
  • 28 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Gyrotrons are among the most powerful sources of coherent radiation that operate in CW and long pulse regimes in the sub-THz and the THz frequency ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. between 0.3 THz and 3.0 THz (corresponding to wavelengths from 1.0 to 0.1 mm). This region, which spans between the frequency bands occupied by various electronic and photonic devices, respectively, is habitually called a THz power gap. The underlying mechanism of the operation of the gyrotron involves a formation of bunches of electrons gyrating in a helical electron beam and their synchronous interaction with a fast (i.e. having a superluminal phase velocity) electromagnetic wave, producing a bremsstrahlung radiation. In contrast to the slow-wave tubes, which utilize tiny structures with dimensions comparable to the wavelength of the radiation, the gyrotrons have a simpler resonant system (cavity resonator) with dimensions that are much greater than the wavelength. This allows much more powerful electron beams to be used and thus higher output powers to be achieved. Although in comparison with the classical microwave tubes the gyrotrons are characterized by greater volume and weight due to the presence of bulky parts (such as superconducting magnets and massive collectors where the energy of the spent electron beam is dissipated) they are much more compact and can easily be embedded in a sophisticated laboratory equipment (e.g. spectrometers, technological systems, etc.) than other devices such as free-electron lasers (FEL) and radiation sources based on electron accelerators. Nowadays, the gyrotrons are used as powerful sources of coherent radiation in the wide fields of high-power sub-THz and THz science and technologies [1][2][3].
  • 654
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Muon Radiography with Nuclear Emulsion Detectors
The paper presents the test experiment to investigate one of UNESCO’s world heritage objects, an archaeological site in the Naryn-Kala citadel (Derbent, Republic of Dagestan, RF) hidden under the ground surface. The function of the site could be revealed by the muon radiography studies. Several nuclear emulsion detectors were exposed for two months inside the site at a depth about 10 m from the modern surface. The use of nuclear emulsions as probing radiation detectors combined with the potential of modern image analysis methods provides for a uniquely high resolution capacity of recording instrumentation and 3D reconstruction of the internal structure of the investigated object. Here we present short descrption of muon radiography method, the test experiment, data analysis details and the first results.
  • 644
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Passivhaus or Passive House buildings are low-energy buildings in which the design is driven by quality and comfort, hence achieving acceptable levels of comfort through post-heating or post-cooling of fresh air. Additionally, Passivhaus building design follows the Passivhaus design criteria, as described in the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP). This article aims to introduce the Passivhaus background, development, and basic design principles. Finally, it also presents a brief description of the performance of Passivhaus buildings. 
  • 564
  • 18 Apr 2022
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