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Zinc Oxide Doped with Transition Metal Ions
As an excellent semiconductor photocatalyst, zinc oxide is widely used in the field of photocatalysis and is regarded as one of the most reliable materials to solve environmental problems. However, because its band gap energy limits the absorption of visible light and reduces the efficiency of catalytic degradation, it needs to be doped with other substances or compounded with other substances and precious metal.
11 Nov 2022
Woven Natural Fibre Polymer Composites
These woven materials are flexible, able to be tailored to the specific needs and have better mechanical properties due to their weaving structures.
03 Mar 2021
Weak Polyelectrolytes for Nanoarchitectonic Design Tools
The ionization degree, charge density, and conformation of weak polyelectrolytes can be adjusted through adjusting the pH and ionic strength stimuli. Such polymers thus offer a range of reversible interactions, including electrostatic complexation, H-bonding, and hydrophobic interactions, which position weak polyelectrolytes as key nano-units for the design of dynamic systems with precise structures, compositions, and responses to stimuli. From surface platforms to colloids and gels, weak polyelectrolytes have enabled the development of a wide range of functional materials owing to their intrinsic response to stimuli, including solvents, temperature, pH, and salt.
30 May 2022
Water-Soluble Photoinitiators in Biomedical Applications
Light-initiated polymerization processes are currently an important tool in various industrial fields. The advancement of technology has resulted in the use of photopolymerization in various biomedical applications, such as the production of 3D hydrogel structures, the encapsulation of cells, and in drug delivery systems. The use of photopolymerization processes requires an appropriate initiating system which, in biomedical applications, must meet additional criteria: high water solubility, non-toxicity to cells, and compatibility with visible low-power light sources. This article is a literature review on those compounds that act as photoinitiators of photopolymerization processes in biomedical applications. The division of initiators according to the method of photoinitiation was described and the related mechanisms were discussed. Examples from each group of photoinitiators are presented, and their benefits, limitations and applications are outlined.
10 Jun 2020
Waste Plastics’ Liquefaction into Fuel Fraction
Polymers and plastics are crucial materials in many sectors of our economy, due to their numerous advantages. They also have some disadvantages, among the most important are problems with the recycling and disposal of used plastics. The recovery of waste plastics is increasing every year, but over 27% of plastics are landfilled. The rest is recycled, where, unfortunately, incineration is still the most common management method. From an economic perspective, waste management methods that lead to added-value products are most preferred—as in the case of material and chemical recycling. Since chemical recycling can be used for difficult wastes (poorly selected, contaminated), it seems to be the most effective way of managing these materials. Moreover, as a result this of kind of recycling, it is possible to obtain commercially valuable products, such as fractions for fuel composition and monomers for the reproduction of polymers.
30 Nov 2022
The ideal vitreous substitute should mimic the native vitreous in terms of both structure and function such as transparency, biocom-patibility, elasticity, easy injectability, except for its liquefication and biodegradability with age. Current vitreous substitutes are used in order to maintain certain criterias such as optical and biomechanical properties and intraocular pressure. Therefore, extensive research with biomaterials is underway taking into consideration its composition, structure and physiological properties as well to overcome the downside of the currently used tamponades.
15 Jan 2021
VARTM Processed Composite Materials
Fiber-reinforced composite structures are used in different applications due to their excellent strength to weight ratio. Due to cost and tool handling issues in conventional manufacturing processes, like resin transfer molding (RTM) and autoclave, vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) is the best choice among industries. VARTM is highly productive and cheap. However, the VARTM process produces complex, lightweight, and bulky structures, suitable for mass and cost-effective production, but the presence of voids and fiber misalignment in the final processed composite influences its strength. Voids are the primary defects, and they cannot be eliminated completely, so a design without considering void defects will entail unreliability. Many conventional failure theories were used for composite design but did not consider the effect of voids defects, thus creating misleading failure characteristics.
07 Apr 2021
Ultraviolet-C for mask disinfection
Change in the title since the subject is more specific
23 Jun 2021
The ultrasonic welding (UW) technique is an ultra-fast joining process used to join thermoplastics, metals and thermoplastic polymer matrix composites.
27 Oct 2020
Ultrasonic dynamic mechanical analysis (UDMA) for polymer characterization
Ultrasonic wave propagation has been used for the high frequency dynamic mechanical analysis of polymers with the aim to monitor the changes of viscoelastic properties in polymers associated with glass transition, crystallization, physical or chemical gelation, crosslinking, and curing reactions.
11 Jun 2020
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development
Encyclopedia of Engineering
Encyclopedia of Piezoelectrics
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