Topic Review
Meat Packaging
The term ‘packaging’ refers to the technological intervention aimed at the protection of food from a variety of factors, which provokes the product detriment. Packaging is considered as one of the most interesting technological aspects and a constantly evolving issue in food production. 
  • 5.9K
  • 21 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Cellulose is the main substance of a plant’s cell walls, helping plants to remain stiff and upright, hence, it can be extracted from plant sources, agriculture waste, animals, and bacterial pellicle. It is composed of polymer chains consisting of unbranched β (1,4) linked D glucopyranosyl units (anhydroglucose unit, AGU).
  • 5.8K
  • 07 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Electrical Resistance/Conductivity of CFRP
This entry provides a comprehensive basis for readers to grasp recent research progresses on electrical behaviors of Carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), which plays an important role in many fields, especially in aviation and civil industries. The electrical conductivity of CFRP is critical for its electrical behaviors, such as its lightning strike vulnerability, electromagnetic shielding ability, and potential uses for self-sensing. In addition, the electrical conductivity is related to the mechanical integrity. Therefore, electrical properties can be measured as an indication in the detection of delamination and other defects in CFRP. 
  • 5.3K
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Polyelectrolytes are polymers of oppositely charged ions and their properties differ profoundly than their repeating units. Over recent years, much advancement has been made in the synthesis, characterization, and application of polyelectrolytes and polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs). It has many applications as flocculation agents, dispersant agents, and as super-plasticizers. In this article, the synthesis, types, characteristics, and application of PECs mainly for drug delivery and dynamics study are reviewed.
  • 5.2K
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Biopolymers for Medical Applications
Biopolymers are the organic substances present in natural sources. The term biopolymer originates from the Greek words bio and polymer, representing nature and living organisms. Large macromolecules made up of numerous repeating units are known as biopolymers. As per the IUPAC definition, a macromolecule defines a single molecule. The biopolymers are found to be biocompatible and biodegradable, making them useful in different applications, such as edible films, emulsions, packaging materials in the food industry, and as drug transport materials, medical implants like medical implants organs, wound healing, tissue scaffolds, and dressing materials in pharmaceutical industries. 
  • 5.1K
  • 18 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Natural Biopolymers
Natural biopolymers are an interesting resource for edible films production, as they are environmentally friendly packaging materials.
  • 4.9K
  • 23 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Polymer 3D Printing
Polymer 3D printing is an emerging technology with recent research translating towards increased use in diverse industries. The polymer 3D printing process works by depositing a polymer in a directed fashion to form a completed part, generally through layer by layer deposition.  Polymer printing is advantageous because it enables printing low-cost functional parts with diverse properties and capabilities. An important aspect polymer 3D printing is the consideration of materials, processes, and design strategies that all influence a parts performance. Research in materials has led to the development of polymers with advantageous characteristics for mechanics and biocompatibility, with tuning of mechanical properties achieved by altering printing process parameters. Suitable polymer printing processes include extrusion, resin, and powder 3D printing, which enable directed material deposition for the design of advantageous and customized architectures.  Through careful consideration of material, process, and design it is possible to create a 3D printed polymer part of complex geometry that is tuned for a specific application on a per-print basis.
  • 4.8K
  • 23 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Hyaluronic Acid
Hyaluronic acid, as a natural linear polysaccharide, has attracted researchers’ attention from its initial detection and isolation from tissues in 1934 until the present day. Due to biocompatibility and a high biodegradation of hyaluronic acid, it finds wide application in bioengineering and biomedicine: from biorevitalizing skin cosmetics and endoprostheses of joint fluid to polymeric scaffolds and wound dressings. However, the main properties of aqueous polysaccharide solutions with different molecular weights are different. Moreover, the therapeutic effect of hyaluronic acid-based preparations directly depends on the molecular weight of the biopolymer. The present entry collects the information about hyaluronic acid and its original properties. Particular emphasis is placed on the structural, physical and physico-chemical properties of hyaluronic acid in water solutions, as well as their degradability.
  • 4.2K
  • 31 Aug 2020
Topic Review
Microalgae/Cyanobacteria in Biodegradation of Plastics
Cyanobacteria (e.g., Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942), which are photosynthetic prokaryotes and were previously identified as blue-green algae, are currently under close attention for their abilities to capture solar energy and the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide for the production of high-value products. In the last few decades, these microorganisms have been exploited for different purposes (e.g., biofuels, antioxidants, fertilizers, and ‘superfood’ production). Microalgae (e.g., Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) are also suitable for environmental and biotechnological applications based on the exploitation of solar light. In recent years, several studies have been targeting the utilization of microorganisms for plastic bioremediation. Among the different phyla, the employment of wild-type or engineered cyanobacteria may represent an interesting, environmentally friendly, and sustainable option (e.g., mismanaged plastics as source of carbons for their cultivation: the connection between their simultaneous utilization for biofuels or chemicals production and microplastics consumption on the surface of basins).
  • 4.1K
  • 05 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Jojoba Oil
Jojoba is a widely used medicinal plant that is cultivated worldwide. Its seeds and oil have a long history of use in folklore to treat various ailments, such as skin and scalp disorders, superficial wounds, sore throat, obesity, and cancer; for improvement of liver functions, enhancement of immunity, and promotion of hair growth. Extensive studies on Jojoba oil showed a wide range of pharmacological applications, including antioxidant, anti-acne and antipsoriasis, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antipyretic, analgesic, antimicrobial, and anti-hyperglycemia activities. In addition, Jojoba oil is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, especially in cosmetics for topical, transdermal, and parenteral preparations. Jojoba oil also holds value in the industry as an anti-rodent, insecticides, lubricant, surfactant, and a source for the production of bioenergy. Jojoba oil is considered among the top-ranked oils due to its wax, which constitutes about 98% (mainly wax esters, few free fatty acids, alcohols, and hydrocarbons). In addition, sterols and vitamins with few triglyceride esters, flavonoids, phenolic and cyanogenic compounds are also present. 
  • 3.9K
  • 03 Jun 2021
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