Topic Review
Two-Dimensional Materials for Optoelectronics Applications
The past one and a half decades have witnessed the tremendous progress of two-dimensional (2D) crystals, including graphene, transition-metal dichalcogenides, black phosphorus, MXenes, hexagonal boron nitride, etc., in a variety of fields. The key to their success is their unique structural, electrical, mechanical and optical properties. Two-dimensional materials are layered crystalline solids that have strong bonding in the crystal plane, while the forces between the adjacent atomic layers are weak van-der-Waals forces. The special structure of 2D materials endows them with many remarkable abilities.
  • 2
  • 09 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Representative Applications of Conjugated Nanomedicine
Chemotherapy is one of the standard methods for the clinical treatment of malignant tumors. Due to the heterogeneity of tumors and the complexity of their pathological mechanisms, a single chemotherapeutic drug is usually unable to eradicate cancer cells. It may also encounter some problems, such as toxic side effects induced by high doses of drugs and obtaining multidrug resistance (MDR) after repeated treatment. These problems then increase the likelihood of cancer metastasis or recurrence. The emergence of the combination of multiple antineoplastic drugs makes up for the deficiency of single drug application. Accordingly, the overall treatment benefit of the multidrug combination is usually higher than that of single drug administration by virtue of different therapeutic mechanisms. More importantly, the drug dose used during synergistic therapy usually decreases and the unfavorable side effects could be weakened under the premise of the same or better therapeutic efficacy. Thereinto, conjugated nanomedicine, as an important type of nanomedicine, can not only possess the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics with great precision but also achieve controlled drug release to avoid adverse effects. Meanwhile, conjugated nanomedicine provides the platform for combining several different therapeutic approaches (chemotherapy, photothermal therapy, photodynamic therapy, thermodynamic therapy, immunotherapy, etc.) with the purpose of achieving synergistic effects during cancer treatment.
  • 10
  • 09 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Microenvironmental Behaviour of Nanotheranostic Systems
The development of smart, efficient and multifunctional material systems for diseases treatment are imperative to meet current and future health challenges. Nanomaterials with theranostic properties have offered a cost effective and efficient solution for disease treatment, particularly, metal/oxide based nanotheranostic systems already offering therapeutic and imaging capabilities for cancer treatment. Nanoparticles can selectively generate/scavenge ROS through intrinsic or external stimuli to augment/diminish oxidative stress. An efficient treatment requires higher oxidative stress/toxicity in malignant disease, with a minimal level in surrounding normal cells. The size, shape and surface properties of nanoparticles are critical parameters for achieving a theranostic function in the microenvironment. The exhibition of therapeutics properties such as selective reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, hyperthermia, antibacterial, antiviral, and imaging capabilities such as MRI, CT and fluorescence activity have been reported in a variety of developed nanosystems to combat cancer, neurodegenerative and emerging infectious diseases.
  • 26
  • 09 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Hole-Transporting Layer in Perovskite Solar Cells
Organic-inorganic halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have received particular attention because of the high-power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), facile fabrication route and low cost. The hole-transporting layer (HTL) play an important role in PSCs to effectively extract holes from the perovskite film and to transport holes to the metal electrode in normal PSCs. 
  • 19
  • 09 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Halogen-Doped Carbon Dots: Synthesis, Application, and Prospects
Carbon dots (CDs) have many advantages, such as tunable photoluminescence, large two-photon absorption cross-sections, easy functionalization, low toxicity, chemical inertness, good dispersion, and biocompatibility. Halogen doping further improves the optical and physicochemical properties of CDs, extending their applications in fluorescence sensors, biomedicine, photocatalysis, anti-counterfeiting encryption, and light-emitting diodes. The preparation of CDs via the “top-down” and “bottom-up”approaches and the preparation methods and applications of halogen (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine)-doped CDs were discussed here. The main challenges of CDs in the future are the elucidation of the luminescence mechanism, fine doping with elements (proportion, position, etc.), and their incorporation in practical devices.
  • 33
  • 09 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Nanoparticles Used in X-Ray Photodynamic Therapy
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has long been known as an effective method for treating surface cancer tissues. Deeper penetration of X-rays into tissues has been implemented, which is now known as X-ray photodynamic therapy (XPDT). The two methods differ in the photon energy used, thus requiring the use of different types of scintillating nanoparticles. These nanoparticles are known to convert the incident energy into the activation energy of a photosensitizer, which leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species.
  • 24
  • 08 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Flexible Pressure Sensor Arrays
Flexible pressure sensors that can maintain their pressure sensing ability with arbitrary deformation play an essential role in a wide range of applications, such as aerospace, prosthetics, robotics, healthcare, human–machine interfaces, and electronic skin. Flexible pressure sensor arrays can visualize touch actions, track motion trajectories, and map pressure distribution in real time with high pressure sensitivity and high resolution.
  • 26
  • 05 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Multi-Functionalized Nanocarriers for Breast Cancer Therapy
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most prevalent cancers in women. This type of malignancy often starts from ductal hyper-proliferation with its expansion into benign tumors or metastatic carcinomas resulting from exposure to carcinogenic agents. This disease exhibits not only a great deal of heterogeneity but also a great deal of variation in its occurrence, treatment response, progression, and even location of metastasis. Multifunctional nanocarriers include polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS), liposomes, and mesoporous inorganic NPs. 
  • 26
  • 02 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Chemogenetics and Optogenetics under General Anesthesia
General anesthesia has been widely utilized since the 1840s, but its underlying neural circuits remain to be completely understood. Chemogenetics and Optogenetics, the two techniques artificially modulate the activity of specific neurons and neural circuits.
  • 72
  • 02 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Analytical Techniques for Detection of Quantum Dots
Since the discovery of Quantum Dots (QDs) by Alexey I. Ekimov in 1981, the interest of researchers in that particular type of nanomaterials (NMs) with unique optical and electrical properties has been increasing year by year. Thus, since 2009, the number of scientific articles published on this topic has not been less than a thousand a year. The increasing use of QDs due to their biomedical, pharmaceutical, biological, photovoltaics or computing applications, as well as many other high-tech uses such as for displays and solid-state lighting (SSL), has given rise to a considerable number of studies about its potential toxicity. However, there are a really low number of reported studies on the detection and quantification of QDs, and these include ICP–MS and electrochemical analysis, which are the most common quantification techniques employed for this purpose. Keeping in mind both human health and environmental risks of QDs as well as the scarcity of analytical techniques and methodological approaches for their detection, the adaptation of existing techniques and methods used with other NMs appears necessary. 
  • 36
  • 27 Jul 2022
  • Page
  • of
  • 51
Top