Topic Review
Different Anisotropic-Strata Interface and Refraction
The strata model inside the earth is close to physical reality. The strata layers can be macro-anisotropic but transversely isotropic, where some are vertically symmetric and the others are not. The macroscopic anisotropy is significant for seismic waves with long wave-length regarding propagation, reflection, refraction, and polarization. This topic review provides the most recent theoretical development related to geophysical applications. 
  • 840
  • 03 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Anomalous Refraction from Anisotropy Media
The transversely isotropic media with a vertical axis of symmetry (VTI media) has been the most popular model for the sedimentary rocks in the interior of the earth. These rocks are usually isotropic within a given layer but strongly anisotropic from layer to layer. Reflection and refraction of acoustic waves between the adjacent rock layers have profound implications in geophysical applications. We discuss some anomalous reflection phenomena of the acoustic wave at the interface between the layered anisotropic rock media. 
  • 760
  • 03 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Acoustical Goos-Hänchen Effect
Goos–Hänchen effect was an important optical phenomenon. When an optical wave propagates from a denser medium to a thinner medium, the total reflection generates coherent interference. The final propagated wave yields a lateral displacement relative to the incidence wave at the interface. Even though optics has a coherent effect on the total reflection of a finite-sized wave and an acoustic wave is incoherent with a non-total reflection of different frequency components, recent research shows that there is an analog Goos–Hänchen effect in acoustics. 
  • 725
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Polarization Conversion from Anisotropy Media
Anisotropy of the transmission media exerts a strong influence on the reflection and transmission coefficients. Anomalous refraction yields the consequence of polarization conversion for the refracted wave. We discuss this important physical phenomenon by invoking practical interfaces between strongly anisotropic rocks, e.g., between O-shale and A-shale.  
  • 540
  • 02 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Sound Transmission Losses in DPS
Double panel structures (DPS) are flat or curved structural designs which consist of two opposite facesheets or panels separated by a core or cavity. The cavity may be any kind of enclosed gasses while the core may be any form of solid materials which can be architecturally designed. DPS have been used in various applications for sound insulation purpose.  First, sound incident on the incident facesheet of the DPS, transmitted through the core or cavity and then radiates from the radiating facesheet of the DPS. The ratio of the sound power incident on the incident facesheet to the sound power transmitted through the radiating facesheet is referred as the sound transmission loss of the DPS. The motivation behind the wide industrial application of DPS is owing to their potential characteristics to absorb sound more effectively. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to understand the different geometry and material constituents of the facesheets as well as core/cavity of the DPS. The knowledge of this will help designers and manufacturers to produce the most effective and optimal design of DPS capable of producing very high and desirable sound transmission losses.
  • 424
  • 19 Aug 2020
Topic Review
Fully Integrated Photoacoustic NO2 Sensor
A fully integrated photoacoustic nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sensor is developed and demonstrated. In this sensor, an embedded photoacoustic cell was manufactured by using an up-to-date 3D printing technique. A blue laser diode was used as a light source for excitation of photoacoustic wave in the photoacoustic cell. The photoacoustic wave is detected by a sensitive microelectromechanical system (MEMS) microphone. Homemade circuits are integrated into the sensor for laser diode driving and signal processing. The sensor was calibrated by using a chemiluminescence NO–NO2–NOX gas analyzer. And the performance of this sensor was evaluated. The linear relationship between photoacoustic signals and NO2 concentrations was verified in a range of below 202 ppb. The limit of detection was determined to 0.86 ppb with an integration time of 1 s. The corresponding normalized noise equivalent absorption was 2.0 × 10−8 cm−1∙W∙Hz−1/2. The stability and the optimal integration time were evaluated with an Allan deviation analysis, from which a detection limit of 0.25 ppb at the optimal integration time of 240 s was obtained. The sensor was used to measure outdoor air and the results agree with that obtained from the NO–NO2–NOX gas analyzer. The low-cost and portable photoacoustic NO2 sensor has a potential application for atmospheric NO2 monitoring.
  • 414
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Acoustic Properties of Natural-fiber-based Composites
Recent advancement in controlling noise through sound absorption provides an opportunity to investigate various porous materials including fiber-based composites. Natural-fiber-based composites exhibit relatively good sound absorption capability due to their porous structure. Surface modification by alkali treatment can enhance the sound absorption performance. These materials can be used in buildings and interiors for efficient sound insulation. Natural-fiber-based composites have advantages such as high abrasive resistance, low emission of toxic fumes with heat, high specific strength, light weight, low cost, and eco-friendliness. Very rapid growth has been observed in the innovations and use of natural-fiber-based materials and composites for acoustic applications.
  • 392
  • 24 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Soundscape Design of Indoor Environments
A growing number of soundscape studies involving audiovisual factors have been conducted; however, their bimodal and interactive effects on indoor soundscape evaluations have not yet been thoroughly reviewed. The overarching goal of this systematic review was to develop the framework for designing sustainable indoor soundscapes by focusing on audiovisual factors and relations. A search for individual studies was conducted through three databases and search engines: Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed. Based on the qualitative reviews of the selected thirty papers, a framework of indoor soundscape evaluation concerning visual and audiovisual indicators was proposed. Overall, the greenery factor was the most important visual variable, followed by the water features and moderating noise annoyance perceived by occupants in given indoor environments. The presence of visual information and sound-source visibility would moderate perceived noise annoyance and influence other audio-related perceptions. Furthermore, sound sources would impact multiple perceptual responses (audio, visual, cognitive, and emotional perceptions) related to the overall soundscape experiences when certain visual factors are interactively involved. The proposed framework highlights the potential use of the bimodality and interactivity of the audiovisual factors for designing indoor sound environments in more effective ways.
  • 275
  • 31 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Immersive Virtual Reality
Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR) is a simulated technology used to deliver multisensory information to people under different environmental conditions. When IVR is generally applied in urban planning and soundscape research, it reveals attractive possibilities for the assessment of urban sound environments with higher immersion for human participation. In virtual sound environments, various topics and measures are designed to collect subjective responses from participants under simulated laboratory conditions. Soundscape or noise assessment studies during virtual experiences adopt an evaluation approach similar to in situ methods. 
  • 220
  • 02 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Acoustic Metamaterials in Aeronautics
Metamaterials, man-made composites that are scaled smaller than the wavelength, have demonstrated a huge potential for application in acoustics, allowing the production of sub-wavelength acoustic absorbers, acoustic invisibility, perfect acoustic mirrors and acoustic lenses for hyper focusing, and acoustic illusions and enabling new degrees of freedom in the control of the acoustic field. The zero, or even negative, refractive sound index of metamaterials offers possibilities for the control of acoustic patterns and sound at sub-wavelength scales. The potential of metamaterial-based technologies has recently caught the interest of the aeronautics community. Their effect in the presence of realistic flows in the surrounding domains, with boundary layer, turbulence, is currently a hot research topic. The interaction with flow requires a careful design of the metamaterial to avoid detrimental effects and enabling the device maximum capabilities in aeronautics.
  • 209
  • 25 Jun 2021
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