Topic Review
Optical Phase Shifters
Optical phase shifters have the functionality to control the phase of light by a change in the effective refractive index. In a Si photonics platform, it is an essential part composing optical modulators as well as switches in Si photonics. The realization of a silicon optical phase shifter marked a cornerstone for the development of silicon photonics, and it is expected that optical interconnects based on the technology relax the explosive datacom growth in data centers. High-performance silicon optical modulators and switches, integrated into a chip, play a very important role in optical transceivers, encoding electrical signals onto the light at high speed and routing the optical signals, respectively. The development of the devices is continuously required to meet the ever-increasing data traffic at higher performance and lower cost.
  • 2621
  • 08 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Laser Absorption Spectroscopy
Laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) is an absorption spectroscopic method that employs a laser as the light source and measures the chemical concentration based on detection of a variation of laser beam intensity after transmission along the optical path. 
  • 2483
  • 10 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Transparent Solar Windows
Many modern glass and window products are based on metal-dielectric coatings, which can control properties such as thermal emissivity, heat gain, colour, and transparency. These can also enable solar energy harvesting through PV integration, if the glazing structure is purpose-designed, to include luminescent materials and special microstructures. Recently, significant progress has been demonstrated in building integrated transparent solar windows, which are expected to add momentum towards the development of smart cities. These window systems are, at present in 2019, the only type of transparent and clear construction materials capable of providing significant energy savings in buildings, simultaneously with renewable energy generation.
  • 1953
  • 11 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity
The teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) is an alternative geometrical formulation of the relativistic theory of gravitation. A brief description of the  TEGR is presented. The building blocks of the theory and few main achievements are discussed.
  • 1937
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Single Point Mooring (SPM) Systems with Buoys
The SPM system consists of four main components, namely, the body of the buoy, the anchoring and mooring components, the fluid transfer system and the ancillary elements. Static legs linked to the seabed underneath the surface keep the buoy body in place. Above the water level, the body has a spinning portion that is attached to the offloading/loading tanker. A roller bearing, referred to as the main bearing, connects these two portions. Due to this array, the anchored tanker can easily weather-vane around the buoy and find a steady position. The concept of the buoy is determined by the type of bearing utilized and the divide between the rotating and geostatic sections. The buoy’s size is determined by the amount of counter buoyancy required to keep the anchor chains in place, and the chains are determined by environmental conditions and vessel size.
  • 1932
  • 19 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are generally defined as crystalline substances with a few atoms thickness.Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide (2D-TMDs) semiconducting (SC) materials have exhibited unique optical and electrical properties. The layered configuration of the 2D-TMDs materials is at the origin of their strong interaction with light and the relatively high mobility of their charge carriers, which in turn prompted their use in many optoelectronic applications, such as ultra-thin field-effect transistors, photo-detectors, light emitting diode, and solar-cells. Generally, 2D-TMDs form a family of graphite-like layered thin semiconducting structures with the chemical formula of MX2, where M refers to a transition metal atom (Mo, W, etc.) and X is a chalcogen atom (Se, S, etc.). The layered nature of this class of 2D materials induces a strong anisotropy in their electrical, chemical, mechanical, and thermal properties. In particular, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is the most studied layered 2D-TMD.
  • 1844
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Bessel Beam
Diffraction is a phenomenon related to the wave nature of light and arises when a propagating wave comes across an obstacle. Consequently, the wave can be transformed in amplitude or phase and diffraction occurs. Those parts of the wavefront avoiding an obstacle form a diffraction pattern after interfering with each other. In this review paper, we have discussed the topic of non-diffractive beams, explicitly Bessel beams. Such beams provide some resistance to diffraction and hence are hypothetically a phenomenal alternate to Gaussian beams in several circumstances. Several outstanding applications are coined to Bessel beams and have been employed in commercial applications. We have discussed several hot applications based on these magnificent beams such as optical trapping, material processing, free-space long-distance self-healing beams, optical coherence tomography, superresolution, sharp focusing, polarization transformation, increased depth of focus, birefringence detection based on astigmatic transformed BB and encryption in optical communication. According to our knowledge, each topic presented in this entry is justifiably explained.
  • 1778
  • 09 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Gabor-Domain Optical Coherence Microscopy
Gabor-domain optical coherence microscopy (GDOCM) is a high transverse resolution variant of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). It was proposed to break the cellular resolution limit of optical coherence tomography (OCT). GDOCM achieves invariant transverse and axial resolutions of 2 micron in 3D by fusing together multiple volumetric images that are acquired employing a liquid lens to dynamically refocus at different depths inside the sample with no moving parts.
  • 1697
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Applications of Liquid Crystals-Based Sensors
Liquid crystals are a class of chemical substances that exist in intermediate states between crystalline solids and liquids. They thus share the anisotropic properties of crystalline solids as well as fluid properties of isotropic liquids. 
  • 1596
  • 23 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Intraretinal Fluid Pattern Characterization
The accumulation of fluids in the retinal layers is one of the main causes of blindness in developed countries. The main strategy for its study and diagnosis is through the use of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images. This allows experts to observe the layers of the retina in a cross-sectional view. Commonly, for the analysis of these accumulations by means of computer diagnostic support systems, precise segmentation strategies are employed.
  • 1583
  • 22 Apr 2021
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