Topic Review
ECM decellularization methods
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex network with multiple functions, including specific functions during tissue regeneration. Precisely, the properties of the ECM have been thoroughly used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine research, aiming to restore the function of damaged or dysfunctional tissues. Tissue decellularization is gaining momentum as a technique to obtain potentially implantable decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) with well-preserved key components. Interestingly, the tissue-specific dECM is becoming a feasible option to carry out regenerative medicine research, with multiple advantages compared to other approaches. We recently published an overview of the most common methods used to obtain the dECM from specific tissues[1]. Here we provide a summary from that report as a helpful guide for future research development.
  • 831
  • 25 Aug 2020
Topic Review
Allium sativum (Garlic)
Garlic (Allium sativum) is an ancient civilised plant, originated from the Asian continent between the Mediterranean and China over 600 years ago. Humans use garlic as a medicinal herb in food as well as to relieve from pain and physical and emotional stress. Currently, people are looking for alternative natural medicine.
  • 782
  • 08 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Root Canal Filling Material
Endodontic treatment for a tooth with damaged dental pulp aims to both prevent and cure apical periodontitis. If the tooth is re-infected as a result of a poorly obturated root canal, periapical periodontitis may set-in due to invading bacteria.To both avoid any re-infection and improve the success rate of endodontic retreatment, a treated root canal should be three-dimensionally obturated with a biocompatible filling material. Recently, bioactive glass, one of bioceramics, is focused on the research area of biocompatible biomaterials for endodontics. Root canal sealers derived from bioactive glass-based have been developed and applied in clinical endodontic treatments. However, at present, there are few of evidence aboutthe patient outcomes, sealing mechanism, sealing ability, and removability of the sealers. Herein, we have developed a bioactive glass-based root canal sealer and provided evidence concerning its physicochemical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, and removability. We also review the classification of bioceramics and characteristics of bioactive glass. Additionally, we describe the application of bioactive glass to facilitate the development of a new root canal sealer. Furthermore, this review shows the potential application of bioactive glass-based cement as a root canal filling material in the absence of semisolid core material.
  • 780
  • 31 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Nanoceria
Several biocompatible materials have been applied for managing soft tissue lesions; cerium oxide nanoparticles (CNPs, or nanoceria) are among the most promising candidates due to their outstanding properties, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and angiogenic activities. Much attention should be paid to the physical properties of nanoceria, since most of its biological characteristics are directly determined by some of these relevant parameters, including the particle size and shape. Nanoceria, either in bare or functionalized forms, showed the excellent capability of accelerating the healing process of both acute and chronic wounds. The skin, heart, nervous system, and ophthalmic tissues are the main targets of nanoceria-based therapies, and the other soft tissues may also be evaluated in upcoming experimental studies. For the repair and regeneration of soft tissue damage and defects, nanoceria-incorporated film, hydrogel, and nanofibrous sca olds have been proven to be highly suitable replacements with satisfactory outcomes. Still, some concerns have remained regarding the long-term e ects of nanoceria administration for human tissues and organs, such as its clearance from the vital organs. Moreover, looking at the future, it seems necessary to design and develop three-dimensional (3D) printed sca olds containing nanoceria for possible use in the concepts of personalized medicine.
  • 750
  • 10 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Nanophotocatalysts
Biomedical waste management is getting significant consideration among treatment technologies, since insufficient management can cause danger to medicinal service specialists, patients, and their environmental conditions. The improvement of waste administration protocols, plans, and policies are surveyed, despite setting up training programs on legitimate waste administration for all healthcare service staff. Most biomedical waste substances do not degrade in the environment, and may also not be thoroughly removed through treatment processes. Therefore, the long-lasting persistence of biomedical waste can effectively have adverse impact on wildlife and human beings, as well. Hence, photocatalysis is gaining increasing attention for eradication of pollutants and for improving the safety and clearness of the environment due to its great potential as a green and eco-friendly process. In this regard, nanostructured photocatalysts, in contrast to their regular counterparts, exhibit significant attributes such as non-toxicity, low cost and higher absorption efficiency in a wider range of the solar spectrum, making them the best candidate to employ for photodegradation. Due to these unique properties of nanophotocatalysts for biomedical waste management, we aim to critically evaluate various aspects of these materials in the present review and highlight their importance in healthcare service settings.
  • 734
  • 18 Aug 2020
Topic Review
Equine Collagen
Equine collagen is referred to type I collagen extracted from horse tissues that, in the last two decades, aroused great scientific and industrial interest in the field of life-science and bioengineering as alternative to bovine collagen for the manufacture of implantable medical devices. Commonly used sources of collagen are represented by bovine and swine, but their limited applications because of the zoonosis transmission risks, the immune response and the religious constrains lead to the identification of other collagen sources. In this circumstance, type I collagen isolated from horse tendon recently gained interest as an attractive alternative, so that, although bovine- and porcine-derived collagens still remain the most common ones, more and more companies started to bring to market several of equine tendon collagen-based products. Its favorable structural properties, its well-known bioactivity, its freedom from zoonosis transmission risks and the ability to not trigger immune reactions make equine collagen particularly appealing in medicine, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.
  • 712
  • 17 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Dental Implant Surfaces
Bone healing process at the interface between bone and implant surface includes haemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. The modifications of titanium dental implant surface that are globally marketed focus on early bone response to switch more quickly from inflammation to proliferation by roughening the surface at the micro-scale. Microstructural modifications change cell behavior around the modified surface, successfully enhancing osseointegration, but they have their own limits. For example, such a modified surface cannot avoid implant failure resulting from shear force because of the occlusal load on the bone-implant interface. This type of failure is able to be bypassed by providing the implant macrodesign with threads, which convert shear force into compressive force that the interface is more resistant to. Dental clinicians and researchers should consider both the implant macrostructure and microstructure to better understand clinical bone response to the dental implant, although this topic is based on the surface microstructural modification. 
  • 702
  • 23 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Acrylic Bone Cements
Acrylic bone cements (ABC) are widely used in orthopedics for joint fixation, antibiotic release, and bone defect filling, among others. Most of the commercial ABCs available today consist of two components, one solid, based mainly on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and one liquid, based on methyl methacrylate (MMA), which are mixed and, through the polymerization reaction of the monomer, transformed into a hardened cement paste. 
  • 660
  • 22 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Non-Enzymatic Electrochemical Sensing
Simultaneous detection of analytes that together exist in biological organisms necessitates the development of effective and efficient non enzymatic electrodes in sensing. In this regard, development of sensing elements for detecting glucose and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is significant. The non-enzymatic sensing is more economical and has longer lifetime than enzymatic electrochemical sensing, but it has several drawbacks such as high working potential, slow electrode kinetics, poisoning from intermediate species and weak sensing parameters. Here is a comprehensive overview of the recent developments in non-enzymatic glucose and H2O2 (NEGH) sensing, by focusing mainly on sensing performance, electro catalytic mechanism, morphology and design of electrode materials. A comparison of glucose and H2O2 sensing parameters using same electrode materials is outlined to predict the efficient sensing performances of advanced nanomaterials with metal/metal oxides and hybrid metallic nanocomposites.
  • 660
  • 24 Nov 2020
Topic Review
CAD Algorithms for Adjusting Contours
In patients with atrophy of the temporalis muscle or flattened skin flaps (trephined syndrome), CAD/CAM (customized computer-assisted design/manufacturing)-fabricated implants with modified reconstructed curvature is crucial for cranioplasty. For the aforementioned clinical conditions, adequate scalp adaptation is significant for either the maintenance of soft tissue bulk or the prevention of the dead space between the dura and implant. This can thoroughly be achieved by adjusting CAD algorithms for the contouring of skull defects with outwardly elevation or inwardly depression, respectively. We herein demonstrate operative details involving modified contours for the reconstruction of skull defects in CAD Modeling.
  • 630
  • 29 Oct 2020
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