Topic Review
Algal Evolution
Phylogenetically algae is regarded as polyphyletic as its origin cannot be traced back to single common hypothetical ancestor. However, genomic studies on algae suggest that algae evolved through endosymbiosis giving rise to at least eight to nine phyla over a period of time.
  • 12.8K
  • 25 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Shrimp Farming in the Philippines
Aquaculture serves the employment and food security needs of most Asian coastal countries, such as Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam, which are all aquaculture-reliant countries with large aquaculture sectors. Aquaculture is a major driver of socioeconomic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and it relieves the pressure on, and helps to maintain the sustainability of, wild-caught species from rivers, lakes, and oceans, as it provides for the shortfalls of capture fisheries.  This industry has become a major source of food protein and it is predicted that it will support the seafood production as a sustainable alternative to wild-caught fish.
  • 12.6K
  • 16 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Ivermectin as Broad-Spectrum Host-Directed Antiviral
The small molecule macrocyclic lactone ivermectin, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for parasitic infections, has received attention in the last eight years due to its exciting potential as an antiviral. It was identified in a high-throughput chemical screen as inhibiting recognition of the nuclear localizing Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) integrase protein by the host heterodimeric importin (IMP) α/β1 complex, and has since been shown to bind directly to IMPα to induce conformational changes that prevent its normal function in mediating nuclear import of key viral and host proteins. Excitingly, cell culture experiments show robust antiviral action towards HIV-1, dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus, West Nile virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Chikungunya virus, Pseudorabies virus, adenovirus, and SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Phase III human clinical trials have been completed for DENV, with >60 trials currently in progress worldwide for SARS-CoV-2.
  • 12.6K
  • 30 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Participatory Forest Management
Participatory forest management has been considered as a practical and effective strategy for sustainable forest management, especially in situations where land tenure is not securely settled. For effective restoration projects, local communities, as the cornerstone of participatory management, should be provided with incentives to facilitate their participation and active role. We postulate that participation in mangrove restoration projects can not only provide financial rewards but also yield intangible benefits for communities, i.e., social capital upgraded. Our study with the case of coastal mangrove restoration in the Philippines concluded that local people’s participation is a viable option for natural resource management that can create benefits and favorable conditions to communities. 
  • 11.7K
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Plant Embryogenesis
Plant embryogenesis is a process that occurs after the fertilization of an ovule to produce a fully developed plant embryo. This is a pertinent stage in the plant life cycle that is followed by dormancy and germination. The zygote produced after fertilization must undergo various cellular divisions and differentiations to become a mature embryo. An end stage embryo has five major components including the shoot apical meristem, hypocotyl, root meristem, root cap, and cotyledons. Unlike animal embryogenesis, plant embryogenesis results in an immature form of the plant, lacking most structures like leaves, stems, and reproductive structures. However, both plants and animals pass through a phylotypic stage that evolved independently and that causes a developmental constraint limiting morphological diversification.
  • 11.4K
  • 28 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Mapogo Lion Coalition
The Mapogo lion coalition was a band of male South African lions that controlled the Sabi Sand region in Kruger National Park. The coalition became infamous for their sheer power and strength in taking over and dominating an area of approximately 70,000 ha (170,000 acres). It is believed the Mapogos killed in excess of 100 lions and cubs in a little over a year. The statistics may be higher given their coverage of such large territories. At its peak, the coalition consisted of six males - the leader Makulu (also spelled as Makhulu), Rasta, Scar, Pretty Boy, Kinky Tail and Mr. T.
  • 10.9K
  • 09 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott]
Cocoyam [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] also known as taro is regarded as an important staple crop in the Pacific Islands, Asia and Africa.
  • 10.3K
  • 22 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Alpha (Ethology)
In studies of social animals, the highest ranking individual of a dominance hierarchy is sometimes designated as the alpha. Males, females, or both, can be alphas, depending on the species. Where one male and one female fulfill this role together, they are sometimes referred to as the alpha pair. Other animals in the same social group may exhibit deference or other species-specific subordinate behavior towards the alpha or alphas. Alpha animals usually gain preferential access to food and other desirable items or activities, though the extent of this varies widely between species. Male or female alphas may gain preferential access to sex or mates; in some species, only alphas or an alpha pair reproduce. Alphas may achieve their status by superior physical strength and aggression, or through social efforts and building alliances within the group, or more often, simply by breeding and being the parent of all in their pack. The individual with alpha status sometimes changes, often through a fight between the dominant and a subordinate animal. These fights are often to the death, depending on the animal.
  • 10.3K
  • 04 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Nutritional Value of Fish
Fish are considered highly nutritious products of the aquaculture system due to the presence of well-balanced macronutrients such as proteins, lipids and micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals
  • 10.3K
  • 28 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Fish Muscle
Fish muscle, which accounts for 15%–25% of the total protein in fish, is a desirable protein source. Their hydrolysate is in high demand nutritionally as a functional food and thus has high potential added value. The hydrolysate contains physiologically active amino acids and various essential nutrients, the contents of which depend on the source of protein, protease, hydrolysis method, hydrolysis conditions, and degree of hydrolysis.
  • 9.9K
  • 07 Jul 2021
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