Topic Review
Hematology and Biochemistry in Northern Porugal Erinaceus europaeus
The Western European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus) is an insectivorous animal with an extensive geographic distribution. Owing mostly to climate changes and anthropogenic pressures, hedgehogs live now in urban areas close to humans where it is exposed to contaminants and biological agents that may result in disease with the correspondent hematological and biochemical alterations. These animals can work as bioindicators to environmental pollution and host multiple zoonotic agents making them relevant for a One Health approach. Reference intervals for the usual hematological and biochemical parameters are very important since they are important medical decision criteria used to determine the animal’s health status or to identify disease.
  • 23
  • 20 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Motility of Helicobacter spp.
Helicobacter spp., including the well-known human gastric pathogen H. pylori, can cause gastric diseases in humans and other mammals. They are Gram-negative bacteria that colonize the gastric epithelium and use their multiple flagella to move across the protective gastric mucus layer. Different Helicobacter spp. differ in the number and arrangement of flagella, as well as in the size and shape of their cell body. The most well-studied of these is H. pylori, which is unipolar and lophotrichous (multiple flagella at one pole). Some of these bacteria are bipolar, e.g., the lophotrichous H. suis, and the monotrichous H. cetorum. The motility of H. pylori, H. suis, and H. cetorum was described in the review in Microorganisms 2023 linked above. 
  • 54
  • 20 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Food Plant Secondary Metabolites Antiviral Activity
Natural products and plant extracts exhibit many biological activities, including that related to the defense mechanisms against parasites. The pandemic emergencies have further increased the interest in finding antiviral agents, and efforts are oriented to investigate possible activities of secondary plant metabolites against human viruses and their potential application in treating or preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection.
  • 9
  • 20 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) is a growing global health threat, leading to the search for alternative strategies to combat bacterial infections. Phytochemicals, which are naturally occurring compounds found in plants, have shown potential as antimicrobial agents. The use of nanotechnology combined with antibacterial phytochemicals could help achieve greater antibacterial capacity against ARB by providing improved mechanical, physicochemical, biopharmaceutical, bioavailability, morphological or release properties.
  • 9
  • 20 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Potential Applications of Silkworm Pupae
The nutritional composition of silkworms will likely have multiple implications for humans, animals, and the environment. The silkworm pupae attracted interest due to lipids and protein profiles. Furthermore, the valuable level of the essential fatty acids (alpha-linolenic and linoleic from the n-3 and n-6 family) results in significant physiological functions in the human body that support good health.
  • 7
  • 20 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Nanobionics with Heavy Metals, Drought, and Salt Stress
Nanomaterials (NMs) are functionalized into plants to improve their natural processes, such as photosynthesis. In this instance, functional nanoparticles (NPs) play a more active role in the plant than nanofertilizers do in distributing macro- or micronutrients. Another goal of plant nanobionics is to make plants into gadgets such as light-emitting plants or environmental sensors. The plant is given a non-native functionality by the NMs introduced here. The basis of plant nanobionics is smart NMs that localise within tissue and even within organelles such as chloroplasts.
  • 54
  • 20 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Production of Enzymes with Industrial Interest
Industrial enzymes are enzymes that are commercially used in a variety of industries such as pharmaceuticals, chemical production, biofuels, food & beverage, and consumer products.  
  • 4
  • 20 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Signaling Molecules in Endophytic Bacteria and Medicinal Plants
Signaling molecules act as the links and bridges between endophytes and host plants. The recognition of endophytes and host plants, the regulation of host plant growth and development, and the synthesis of secondary metabolites are not separated by the participation of signaling molecules.
  • 38
  • 20 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Heterosis in Arabidopsis thaliana
Heterosis is an important phenomenon for high-yield crop breeding and is utilized for breeding F1 varieties in horticultural crops. 
  • 56
  • 20 Mar 2023
Topic Review
The HIF-Dependent Transcriptional Response
The Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1) plays a major role in the cellular response to hypoxia by regulating the expression of many genes involved in adaptive processes that allow cell survival under low oxygen conditions. Adaptation to the hypoxic tumor micro-environment is also critical for cancer cell proliferation and therefore HIF-1 is also considered a valid therapeutical target. Despite the huge progress in understanding regulation of HIF-1 expression and activity by oxygen levels or oncogenic pathways, the way HIF-1 interacts with chromatin and the transcriptional machinery in order to activate its target genes is still a matter of intense investigation.
  • 5
  • 20 Mar 2023
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