Topic Review
Corneal Regenerative Approach
A transparent cornea is paramount for vision. Corneal opacity is one of the leading causes of blindness. Although conventional corneal transplantation has been successful in recovering patients’ vision, the outcomes are challenged by a global lack of donor tissue availability. Bioengineered corneal tissues are gaining momentum as a new source for corneal wound healing and scar management. Extracellular matrix (ECM)-scaffold-based engineering offers a new perspective on corneal regenerative medicine.
  • 39
  • 11 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Patient-Derived Lung Tumoroids
Synthetic 3D multicellular systems derived from patient tumors, or tumoroids, have been developed to complete the cancer research arsenal and overcome the limits of current preclinical models. Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer worldwide; non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common form, with 85% of all cases. The survival rate over 5 years for patients with advanced stage lung cancer remains below 15% despite the diversity of therapeutic treatments and very important progress. Treatment options mainly rely on surgery, complemented with radiotherapy, targeted chemotherapy, or immunotherapy, thanks to the development of specific markers of response. 
  • 84
  • 05 Aug 2022
Topic Review
Scalable Production of Extracellular Vesicles
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are minute vesicles with lipid bilayer membranes. EVs are secreted by cells for intercellular communication. Recently, EVs have received much attention, as they are rich in biological components such as nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins that play essential roles in tissue regeneration and disease modification. In addition, EVs can be developed as vaccines against cancer and infectious diseases, as the vesicle membrane has an abundance of antigenic determinants and virulent factors. EVs for therapeutic applications are typically collected from conditioned media of cultured cells. However, the number of EVs secreted by the cells is limited. Thus, it is critical to devise new strategies for the large-scale production of EVs.
  • 28
  • 29 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Cell Biology and Immune Functions of the MSC
The acronym mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) refers either to: Mesenchymal Stem Cell, a term popularized by Caplan in the 1990s and broadly used after that, or Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cell, which is the terminology promoted by Mesenchymal and Tissue Stem Cell Committee of the International Society of Cell Therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a subset of non-hematopoietic stem cells found at low frequency, mainly located around vessels (hence also named pericytes) in resting conditions but with high proliferation and multilineage differentiation capacities to orchestrate tissue repair mechanisms.
  • 115
  • 28 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Applications of Hydrogels in Biomedicine
Hydrogels are crosslinked polymer chains with three-dimensional (3D) network structures, which can absorb relatively large amounts of fluid. Because of the high water content, soft structure, and porosity of hydrogels, they closely resemble living tissues. Research in recent years shows that hydrogels have been applied in various fields, such as agriculture, biomaterials, the food industry, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine. Along with the underlying technology improvements of hydrogel development, hydrogels can be expected to be applied in more fields. 
  • 37
  • 20 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Modelling Ischaemic Stroke In Vitro
Most of the knowledge on the pathophysiological mechanisms of an ischaemic stroke is derived from animal-based in vitro and in vivo models. Over the past decades, different animal models of stroke have been developed, induced by emboli, intraluminal suture, photothrombosis or endothelin-1, typically in rodents. The rat is one of the most commonly used species in stroke research, among other reasons, due to the similarity of the cerebral vasculature and physiology with that of humans. Moreover, mice are often used, since they are helpful in unravelling the function of certain genes in the pathophysiology of stroke by means of the creation of transgenic mice. Animal stroke models have been an indispensable tool, as they can model different aspects of the complex pathophysiology of ischaemic stroke that cannot be modelled (yet) in simple in vitro models lacking intact blood vessels and blood flow. However, simplified, highly controlled in vitro systems are required and preferred when investigating specific basic mechanisms and cell type-specific responses under ischaemia-like conditions. Besides, in the context of testing potential neuroprotective compounds, working in vitro allows high-throughput screenings, even on a human-based background.
  • 50
  • 19 Jul 2022
Topic Review
CAR T Cell Therapy in Hematological Malignancies
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has ushered in a new era in cancer treatment. Remarkable outcomes have been demonstrated in patients with previously untreatable relapsed/refractory hematological malignancies. However, optimizing efficacy and reducing the risk of toxicities have posed major challenges, limiting the success of this therapy. The tumor microenvironment (TME) plays an important role in CAR T cell therapy’s effectiveness and the risk of toxicities. Increasing research studies have also identified various biomarkers that can predict its effectiveness and risk of toxicities.
  • 48
  • 09 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Metabolic Profiling of Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells
Mammalian cell lines are preferred for the production of functional, complex recombinant proteins including mAbs, with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells being used in most instances. Despite significant advances in cell growth control for biologics manufacturing, cellular responses to environmental changes need to be understood in order to further improve productivity. Metabolomics offers a promising approach for developing suitable strategies to unlock the full potential of cellular production. 
  • 52
  • 05 Jul 2022
Topic Review
3D Microenvironment Cell Culture in Snake Venom Research
Snake venoms are a natural biological source of bioactive compounds, mainly composed of proteins and peptides with specific pathophysiological functions. The diversity of protein families found in snake venoms is reflected by the range of targets and toxicological effects observed, and consequently, a wide variety of potential pharmacological activities. In this context, in vitro biomimetic models such as spheroid and organoid systems, which are three-dimensional (3D) cell culture models, enable extensive screening and identification of substances with pharmacological potential and the determination of the mechanisms underlying their activities.
  • 53
  • 01 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Temporary Implants (Magnesium/Zinc) in Cardiovascular Applications
Medical application materials must meet multiple requirements, and the designed material must mimic the structure, shape. and support the formation of the replacing tissue. Magnesium (Mg) and Zinc alloys (Zn), as a “smart” biodegradable material and as “the green engineering material in the 21st century”, have become an outstanding implant material due to their natural degradability, smart biocompatibility, and desirable mechanical properties. Magnesium and Zinc are recognized as the next generation of cardiovascular stents and bioresorbable scaffolds. At the same time, improving the properties and corrosion resistance of these alloys is an urgent challenge. particularly to promote the application of magnesium alloys. A relatively fast deterioration rate of magnesium-based materials generally results in premature mechanical integrity compromise and local hydrogen build-up, resulting in restricted applicability. 
  • 41
  • 28 Jun 2022
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