Topic Review
18 kDa Translocator Protein
Neuroactive steroids are potent modulators of microglial functions and are capable of counteracting their excessive reactivity. This action has mainly been ascribed to neuroactive steroids released from other sources, as microglia have been defined unable to produce neurosteroids de novo. Unexpectedly, immortalized murine microglia recently exhibited this de novo biosynthesis; herein, de novo neurosteroidogenesis was characterized in immortalized human microglia. The results demonstrated that C20 and HMC3 microglial cells constitutively express members of the neurosteroidogenesis multiprotein machinery—in particular, the transduceosome members StAR and TSPO, and the enzyme CYP11A1. Moreover, both cell lines produce pregnenolone and transcriptionally express the enzymes involved in neurosteroidogenesis. The high TSPO expression levels observed in microglia prompted us to assess its role in de novo neurosteroidogenesis. TSPO siRNA and TSPO synthetic ligand treatments were used to reduce and prompt TSPO function, respectively. The TSPO expression downregulation compromised the de novo neurosteroidogenesis and led to an increase in StAR expression, probably as a compensatory mechanism. 
  • 168
  • 06 May 2021
Topic Review
3D Bioprinting for Cartilage Tissue Engineering
Cartilage is an avascular tissue with extremely limited self-regeneration capabilities. Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinted constructs for cartilage repair applications. 3D bioprinting is an evolutionary additive manufacturing technique that enables the precisely controlled deposition of a combination of biomaterials, cells, and bioactive molecules, collectively known as bioink, layer-by-layer to produce constructs that simulate the structure and function of native cartilage tissue.
  • 49
  • 21 Jun 2022
Topic Review
4-Hexylresorcinol
4-Hexylresorcinol (4HR) is a synthetic resorcinolic lipid that has been used as an anti-parasitic and antiseptic agent since the 1920s. 
  • 95
  • 14 Sep 2021
Topic Review
5-Bromo-2′-deoxyuridine
The thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) is a pyrimidine 2′-deoxyribonucleoside compound having 5-bromouracil as the nucleobase. This agent is permanently incorporated into the DNA during the synthetic phase of the cell cycle. It has been argued that gene duplication, DNA repair or apoptotic cellular events might contribute to BrdU labeling in vivo.
  • 144
  • 12 Oct 2021
Topic Review
A Focus on Aquatic Animals
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are one of the best-known opportunistic pathogens capable of causing different types of infections in animals. Furthermore, it has the ability to acquire resistance to various antibiotics very easily. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) are currently of great concern as they are the leading cause of infections in humans and animals, with a major impact on health and the economy.
  • 116
  • 14 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Adenosine Signaling in Mast Cells
Adenosine is a nucleoside involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. Its effects are mediated through its binding to G protein-coupled receptors: A1, A2a, A2b and A3. The receptors differ in the type of G protein they recruit, in the effect on adenylyl cyclase (AC) activity and the downstream signaling pathway triggered. Adenosine can produce both an enhancement and an inhibition of mast cell degranulation, indicating that adenosine effects on these receptors is controversial and remains to be clarified.
  • 165
  • 01 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Adipose Tissue Mitochondria
Mitochondria play a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis in metabolic tissues, including adipose tissues. The two main types of adipose tissues are the white adipose tissue (WAT) and the brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT primarily stores excess energy, whereas BAT is predominantly responsible for energy expenditure by non-shivering thermogenesis through the mitochondria. WAT in response to appropriate stimuli such as cold exposure and β-adrenergic agonist undergoes browning wherein it acts as BAT, which is characterized by the presence of a higher number of mitochondria. 
  • 104
  • 10 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Adrenomedullin/PAMP’s Roles in the Digestive System
Adrenomedullin (AM) and proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP) are two bioactive peptides derived from the same precursor with several biological functions including vasodilation, angiogenesis, or anti-inflammation, among others. AM and PAMP are widely expressed throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract where they behave as GI hormones, regulating numerous physiological processes such as gastric emptying, gastric acid release, insulin secretion, bowel movements, or intestinal barrier function. 
  • 83
  • 15 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs)
The Maillard reaction is a simple but ubiquitous reaction that occurs both in vivo and ex vivo during the cooking or processing of foods under high-temperature conditions, such as baking, frying, or grilling. Glycation of proteins is a post-translational modification that forms temporary adducts, which, on further crosslinking and rearrangement, form permanent residues known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Cooking at high temperature results in various food products having high levels of AGEs. This review underlines the basis of AGE formation and their corresponding deleterious effects on the body. Glycated Maillard products have a direct association with the pathophysiology of some metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), acute renal failure (ARF), Alzheimer’s disease, dental health, allergies, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The most glycated and structurally abundant protein is collagen, which acts as a marker for diabetes and aging, where decreased levels indicate reduced skin elasticity. In diabetes, high levels of AGEs are associated with carotid thickening, ischemic heart disease, uremic cardiomyopathy, and kidney failure. AGEs also mimic hormones or regulate/modify their receptor mechanisms at the DNA level. In women, a high AGE diet directly correlates with high levels of androgens, anti-Müllerian hormone, insulin, and androstenedione, promoting ovarian dysfunction and/or infertility. Vitamin D3 is well-associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS and modulates steroidogenesis. It also exhibits a protective mechanism against the harmful effects of AGEs.
  • 375
  • 28 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Advantages/Disadvantages/Limitations of Chemotaxis Assays for Campylobacter spp.
Chemotaxis directed motility of intestinal bacteria such as Campylobacter jejuni could enable the cells to move toward favourable conditions and away from hazardous ones. Reproducible qualitative and quantitative assessment of bacterial chemotactic motility, particularly in response to chemorepellent effectors, is experimentally challenging. Several established chemotaxis assays currently used to investigate Campylobacter jejuni chemotaxis are compared, with the aim of improving the correlation between different studies and establishing the best practices.
  • 165
  • 11 Feb 2022
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