Topic Review
Seaweed Phenolic Compounds
Seaweeds are a potential source of bioactive compounds that are useful for biotechnological applications and can be employed in different industrial areas in order to replace synthetic compounds with components of natural origin. Diverse studies demonstrate that there is a solid ground for the exploitation of seaweed bioactive compounds in order to prevent illness and to ensure a better and healthier lifestyle. Among the bioactive algal molecules, phenolic compounds are produced as secondary metabolites with beneficial effects on plants, and also on human beings and animals, due to their inherent bioactive properties, which exert antioxidant, antiviral, and antimicrobial activities. 
  • 364
  • 07 May 2021
Topic Review
Marine Organism-Derived Polydeoxyribonucleotide
Polydeoxyribonucleotides (PDRNs) are a family of DNA-derived drugs with a molecular weight ranging from 50 to 1500 kDa, which are mainly extracted from the sperm cells of salmon trout or chum salmon. Many pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties of PDRN, which are mediated by the activation of adenosine A2A receptor and salvage pathways, in addition to promoting osteoblast activity, collagen synthesis, and angiogenesis. In fact, PDRN is already marketed due to its therapeutic properties against various wound healing- and inflammation-related diseases. 
  • 344
  • 26 May 2021
Topic Review
Reactive Oxygen Species in Macrophages
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a chemically defined group of reactive molecules derived from molecular oxygen. ROS are involved in a plethora of processes in cells in all domains of life, ranging from bacteria, plants and animals, including humans. The importance of ROS for macrophage-mediated immunity is unquestioned. Their functions comprise direct antimicrobial activity against bacteria and parasites as well as redox-regulation of immune signaling and induction of inflammasome activation.
  • 338
  • 10 May 2021
Topic Review
P-Coumaric Acid in Cosmetics
p-Coumaric acid is a natural metabolite contained in many edible plants, and its antioxidant activities in reducing oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions have been demonstrated in various experimental models. p-Coumaric acid has an optimal structure to be a competitive inhibitor of tyrosinase that catalyzes key reactions in the melanin biosynthetic pathway. Experimental evidence supports this notion as it was found to be a more potent inhibitor of tyrosinase, especially toward human enzymes, than other well-known tyrosinase inhibitors such as arbutin and kojic acid. p-Coumaric acid inhibited melanin synthesis in murine melanoma cells, human epidermal melanocytes, and 3-dimensionally reconstituted human skin models. Ex vivo skin permeation experiments and in vivo efficacy tests for p-coumaric acid confirmed its efficient transdermal delivery and functional efficacy in reducing erythema development and skin pigmentation due to ultraviolet exposure. Human studies further supported its effectiveness in hypopigmentation and depigmentation. These findings suggest that p-coumaric acid has good potential to be used as a skin-lightening active ingredient in cosmetics. 
  • 333
  • 30 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Euphorbia
Euphorbia genus (Euphorbiaceae family), which is the third largest genus of angiosperm plants comprising ca. 2000 recognized species, is used all over the world in traditional medicine, especially in the traditional Chinese medicine. Members of this taxa are promptly recognizable by their specialized inflorescences and latex. In this review, an overview of Euphorbia-derived natural products such as essential oils, extracts, and pure compounds, active in a broad range of biological activities, and with potential usages in health maintenance, is described. The chemical composition of essential oils from Euphorbia species revealed the presence of more than 80 phytochemicals, mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons, while Euphorbia extracts contain secondary metabolites such as sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, sterols, flavonoids, and other polyphenols. 
  • 310
  • 26 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids as Sunscreen
Prolonged exposure to harmful ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can induce many chronic or acute skin disorders in humans. To protect themselves, many people have started to apply cosmetic products containing UV-screening chemicals alone or together with physical sunblocks, mainly based on titanium–dioxide (TiO2) or zinc-oxide (ZnO2). However, it has now been shown that the use of chemical and physical sunblocks is not safe for long-term application, so searches for the novel, natural UV-screening compounds derived from plants or bacteria are gaining attention. Certain photosynthetic organisms such as algae and cyanobacteria have evolved to cope with exposure to UVR by producing mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). These are promising substitutes for chemical sunscreens containing commercially available sunblock filters. The use of biopolymers such as chitosan for joining MAAs together or with MAA-Np (nanoparticles) conjugates will provide stability to MAAs similar to the mixing of chemical and physical sunscreens. 
  • 307
  • 21 May 2021
Topic Review
Dextran
Dextran is an exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesized by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or their enzymes in the presence of sucrose. Dextran is composed of a linear chain of d-glucoses linked by α-(1→6) bonds, with possible branches of d-glucoses linked by α-(1→4), α-(1→3), or α-(1→2) bonds, which can be low (<40 kDa) or high molecular weight (>40 kDa). The characteristics of dextran in terms of molecular weight and branches depend on the producing strain, so there is a great variety in its properties. Dextran has commercial interest because its solubility, viscosity, and thermal and rheological properties allow it to be used in food, pharmaceutical, and research areas. 
  • 307
  • 07 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Spironolactone and XPB
Spironolactone (SP) is commonly used for the treatment of heart failure, hypertension, and complications of cirrhosis by antagonizing the mineralocorticoid receptor. However, SP also antagonizes the androgen receptor, and thus SP has also been shown to be effective in the treatment of acne, hair loss, and hirsutism in women. Interestingly, recent drug repurposing screens have identified new and diverse functions for SP as a simulator of tumor immunosurveillance and as an inhibitor of DNA repair and viral infection. These novel pharmacological effects of SP have all been linked to the ability of SP to induce the rapid proteolytic degradation of the xeroderma pigmentosum group B (XPB) protein. XPB is a critical enzymatic component of the multi-subunit complex known as transcription factor II-H (TFIIH), which plays essential roles in both DNA repair and the initiation of transcription. Given the critical functions for XPB and TFIIH in these processes, the loss of XPB by SP could lead to mutagenesis. However, the ability of SP to promote cancer stem cell death and facilitate immune recognition may counteract the negative consequences of SP to mitigate carcinogenic risk. Thus, SP appears to have new and interesting pharmacological effects that may extend its potential uses.
  • 295
  • 21 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Insect Odorant-Binding Proteins
The survival of insects depends on their ability to detect molecules present in their environment. Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) form a family of proteins involved in chemoreception. While OBPs were initially found in olfactory appendages, recently these proteins were discovered in other chemosensory and non-chemosensory organs. OBPs can bind, solubilize and transport hydrophobic stimuli to chemoreceptors across the aqueous sensilla lymph. In addition to this broadly accepted “transporter role”, OBPs can also buffer sudden changes in odorant levels and are involved in hygro-reception. The physiological roles of OBPs expressed in other body tissues, such as mouthparts, pheromone glands, reproductive organs, digestive tract and venom glands, remain to be investigated.
  • 292
  • 13 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Congenital Microcoria
Iris integrity is required to regulate both the amount of light reaching the retina and intraocular pressure (IOP), with elevated IOP being a major risk factor for glaucoma. Congenital microcoria (MCOR) is an extremely rare, autosomal dominant disease affecting iris development and hindering both of these functions. 
  • 292
  • 22 Sep 2021
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