Topic Review
Stonefish: venom components, pathology, distribution
There are five species of stonefish within the genus Synanceia: Synanceia horrida (previously referred to as S. trachynis), S. verrucosa, S. alula, S. nana and S. platyrhyncha. Synanceia spp. can grow 35–50 cm in length and have evolved grey and mottled skin to camouflage themselves amongst encrusted rocks and coral for predation and defense. Synanceia species have up to 15 dorsal fin spines that are erected when the fish is disturbed. Stings from this medically important group of fish are known to cause painful and lethal human envenomations. Stonefish are regarded as one of the most venomous fish in the world. Research on stonefish venom has chiefly focused on the in vitro and in vivo neurological, cardiovascular, cytotoxic and nociceptive effects of the venom.
  • 729
  • 17 Jun 2021
Topic Review
The amygdala is one of the areas in the brain involved in the development of PTSD as the starting point for the process of activation of the hypothalamo–pituitary axis and the cascade of physiological responses to acute stress. An appropriate response to acute stress is a vital adaptive mechanism, but its prolongation causes various biopsychosocial (previously, psychosomatic) disorders. Chronic stress leads to higher expression of CRH/CRF in the CE and BLA, which has an anxiogenic effect.
  • 644
  • 13 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Anti-Fungal Efficacy of Flavonoids
The prevalence of fungal infections is growing at an alarming pace and the pathogenesis is still not clearly understood. Recurrence of these fungal diseases is often due to their evolutionary avoidance of antifungal resistance. The development of suitable novel antimicrobial agents for fungal diseases continues to be a major problem in the current clinical field. Hence, it is urgently necessary to develop surrogate agents that are more effective than conventional available drugs. Among the remarkable innovations from earlier investigations on natural-drugs, flavonoids are a group of plant-derived substances capable of promoting many valuable effects on humans. The identification of flavonoids with possible antifungal effects at small concentrations or in synergistic combinations could help to overcome this problem. A combination of flavonoids with available drugs is an excellent approach to reduce the side effects and toxicity.
  • 515
  • 10 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Mesoporous Carbon
Mesoporous carbon is a promising material having multiple applications. It can act as a catalytic support and can be used in energy storage devices. Moreover, mesoporous carbon controls body’s oral drug delivery system and adsorb poisonous metal from water and various other molecules from an aqueous solution. The accuracy and improved activity of the carbon materials depend on some parameters. The recent breakthrough in the synthesis of mesoporous carbon, with high surface area, large pore-volume, and good thermostability, improves its activity manifold in performing functions. Considering the promising application of mesoporous carbon, it should be broadly illustrated in the literature. 
  • 459
  • 07 May 2021
Topic Review
Resveratrol and Human Skin Lightening
Resveratrol is a polyphenol compound found in many edible plants such as Vitis vinifera, and its inhibitory effects on the catalytic activity, gene expression, and posttranslational modifications of tyrosinase, a key enzyme in the melanin biosynthetic pathway, provide a mechanistic basis for its antimelanogenic effects seen in melanocytic cells, three-dimensionally reconstituted skin models, and in vivo animal models. Recent clinical studies have supported the efficacy of resveratrol and its analogs, such as resveratryl triacetate (RTA) and resveratryl triglycolate (RTG), in human skin lightening. These findings suggest that resveratrol and its analogs are potentially useful as skin lightening agents in cosmetics.
  • 348
  • 29 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs)
The Maillard reaction is a simple but ubiquitous reaction that occurs both in vivo and ex vivo during the cooking or processing of foods under high-temperature conditions, such as baking, frying, or grilling. Glycation of proteins is a post-translational modification that forms temporary adducts, which, on further crosslinking and rearrangement, form permanent residues known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Cooking at high temperature results in various food products having high levels of AGEs. This review underlines the basis of AGE formation and their corresponding deleterious effects on the body. Glycated Maillard products have a direct association with the pathophysiology of some metabolic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2), acute renal failure (ARF), Alzheimer’s disease, dental health, allergies, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The most glycated and structurally abundant protein is collagen, which acts as a marker for diabetes and aging, where decreased levels indicate reduced skin elasticity. In diabetes, high levels of AGEs are associated with carotid thickening, ischemic heart disease, uremic cardiomyopathy, and kidney failure. AGEs also mimic hormones or regulate/modify their receptor mechanisms at the DNA level. In women, a high AGE diet directly correlates with high levels of androgens, anti-Müllerian hormone, insulin, and androstenedione, promoting ovarian dysfunction and/or infertility. Vitamin D3 is well-associated with the pathogenesis of PCOS and modulates steroidogenesis. It also exhibits a protective mechanism against the harmful effects of AGEs.
  • 288
  • 28 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Seaweed Phenolic Compounds
Seaweeds are a potential source of bioactive compounds that are useful for biotechnological applications and can be employed in different industrial areas in order to replace synthetic compounds with components of natural origin. Diverse studies demonstrate that there is a solid ground for the exploitation of seaweed bioactive compounds in order to prevent illness and to ensure a better and healthier lifestyle. Among the bioactive algal molecules, phenolic compounds are produced as secondary metabolites with beneficial effects on plants, and also on human beings and animals, due to their inherent bioactive properties, which exert antioxidant, antiviral, and antimicrobial activities. 
  • 277
  • 07 May 2021
Topic Review
Marine Organism-Derived Polydeoxyribonucleotide
Polydeoxyribonucleotides (PDRNs) are a family of DNA-derived drugs with a molecular weight ranging from 50 to 1500 kDa, which are mainly extracted from the sperm cells of salmon trout or chum salmon. Many pre-clinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the wound healing and anti-inflammatory properties of PDRN, which are mediated by the activation of adenosine A2A receptor and salvage pathways, in addition to promoting osteoblast activity, collagen synthesis, and angiogenesis. In fact, PDRN is already marketed due to its therapeutic properties against various wound healing- and inflammation-related diseases. 
  • 273
  • 26 May 2021
Topic Review
Reactive Oxygen Species in Macrophages
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a chemically defined group of reactive molecules derived from molecular oxygen. ROS are involved in a plethora of processes in cells in all domains of life, ranging from bacteria, plants and animals, including humans. The importance of ROS for macrophage-mediated immunity is unquestioned. Their functions comprise direct antimicrobial activity against bacteria and parasites as well as redox-regulation of immune signaling and induction of inflammasome activation.
  • 255
  • 10 May 2021
Topic Review
Runx2 and Osteoblasts
Runx2 is essential for osteoblast differentiation, chondrocyte maturation, and transdifferentiation of terminally differentiated chondrocytes into osteoblasts. During osteoblast differentiation, Runx2 is weakly expressed in uncommitted mesenchymal cells, and its expression is upregulated in preosteoblasts, reaches the maximal level in immature osteoblasts, and is down-regulated in mature osteoblasts. Runx2 enhances the proliferation of osteoblast progenitors by directly regulating Fgfr2 and Fgfr3. Runx2 enhances the proliferation of suture mesenchymal cells and induces their commitment into osteoblast lineage cells through the direct regulation of hedgehog (Ihh, Gli1, and Ptch1), Fgf (Fgfr2 and Fgfr3), Wnt (Tcf7, Wnt10b, and Wnt1), and Pthlh (Pthr1) signaling pathway genes, and Dlx5. Runx2 heterozygous mutation causes open fontanelle and sutures because more than half of the Runx2 gene dosage is required for the induction of these genes in suture mesenchymal cells. Runx2 induces the proliferation of osteoblast progenitors and their differentiation into osteoblasts through reciprocal regulation via major signaling pathways, including Fgf, hedgehog, Wnt, and Pthlh, and transcription factors, including Sp7 and Dlx5. Runx2 also regulates the expression of bone matrix protein genes, including Col1a1, Col1a2, Spp1, and Bglap/Bglap2. Bglap/Bglap2 (osteocalcin) aligns biological apatite parallel to the collagen fibrils, which is important for bone strength, but osteocalcin does not play a role as a hormone in the pancreas, testis, and muscle. 
  • 252
  • 22 Apr 2021
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