Topic Review
Australian Tropical Medicinal Plants
Australian tropical plants have been a rich source of food (bush food) and medicine to the first Australians (Aboriginal people), who are believed to have lived for more than 50,000 years. Plants such as spreading sneezeweed (Centipeda minima), goat’s foot (Ipomoea pes-caprae), and hop bush (Dodonaea viscosa and D. polyandra) are a few popular Aboriginal medicinal plants.
  • 35
  • 01 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Microbiota of Sand Flies
Sand flies are a significant public health concern in many parts of the world where they are known to transmit agents of several zoonotic diseases to humans, such as leishmaniasis. Vector control remains a key component of many anti-leishmaniasis programs and probably will remain so until an effective vaccine becomes available. The sand fly gut microbiota has emerged as an encouraging field for the exploration of vector-based disease control. In particular, the gut microbiome was previously reported to either enhance or inhibit parasite activity depending on the species of bacteria and, thus, has the potential to alter vector competence. 
  • 177
  • 17 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Isatin-Based Scaffolds
Isatin, chemically an indole-1H-2,3-dione, is recognised as one of the most attractive therapeutic fragments in drug design and development. The template has turned out to be exceptionally useful for developing new anticancer scaffolds, as evidenced by the increasing number of isatin-based molecules which are either in clinical use or in trials. Apart from its promising antiproliferative properties, isatin has shown potential in treating Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) not only as a parent core, but also by attenuating the activities of various pharmacophores.
  • 72
  • 06 May 2022
Topic Review
Tranditional Use and Nutritional Value of Lansium domesticum
Lansium domesticum (Langsat, Meliaceae) is a tropical fruit mainly found in Southeast Asian countries, particularly in Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
  • 71
  • 21 Apr 2022
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Generational Effects of Opioid Exposure
The inheritance of substance abuse, including opioid abuse, may be influenced by genetic and non-genetic factors related to the environment, such as stress and socioeconomic status. These non-genetic influences on the heritability of a trait can be attributed to epigenetics. Epigenetic inheritance can result from modifications passed down from the mother, father, or both, resulting in either maternal, paternal, or parental epigenetic inheritance, respectively. These epigenetic modifications can be passed to the offspring to result in multigenerational, intergenerational, or transgenerational inheritance. Human and animal models of opioid exposure have shown generational effects that result in molecular, developmental, and behavioral alterations in future generations. 
  • 195
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Mechanisms of Snake Venom Induced Pain
Not all venoms contain the same constituents; not all sensory neurons or other components of the nervous system are vulnerable to the same peptide or enzyme; not all tissues and organs have the same innervation or vulnerability to venom constituents; and, lastly, snakes have incredibly diverse venom proteomes, a diversity driven by geographical and other environmental factors. Documentation of specific pain syndromes in greater detail in future epidemiological studies of snake bite is also critical. 
  • 129
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Eumycetoma Medical Treatment
Mycetoma is a neglected tropical disease that is associated with poor communities and socioeconomically impaired individuals in the tropical and sub-tropical areas. Interestingly, the disease is caused by either bacteria (actinomycetoma) or fungus (eumycetoma). The latter form of the disease, eumycetoma, is the most common type in Africa. Eumycetoma is characterized by a prolonged disease duration and low cure rate. The effective case management of eumycetoma largely depends on the accurate diagnosis and identification of the causative agent to the species level and evaluating its susceptibility to the available drugs.
  • 62
  • 23 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Efficacy and Effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines
The major determinants of vaccine acceptance are vaccine safety and efficacy. Most COVID-19 vaccines have mild side effects, such as pain at the site of injection, tiredness, headache, fever, or shivering for 1–2 days after vaccination. Very rare side effects include allergic reactions and blood clotting problems, the latter affecting a small number of people who had the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine. Vaccine efficacy is defined as the degree to which a vaccine prevents disease, and possibly, also its transmission under ideal and controlled circumstances; this is determined by comparing a vaccinated group with a placebo group in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Vaccine effectiveness also refers to how well the vaccine performs in the real world based on observational studies.
  • 99
  • 04 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Eclipta prostrata (L.)L.(Asteraceae): Ethnomedicinal Uses and Chemical Constituents
Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. (Syn.: Eclipta alba (L.) Hassak, Family: Asteraceae) is an important medicinal plant in the tropical and subtropical regions. It is widely used in treating various diseases of skin, liver and stomach in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and other countries.
  • 98
  • 09 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Microfluidics and Plasmodium
Malaria is caused by a protozoan parasite called Plasmodium. Four different species of Plasmodium cause human infections: P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax. Worldwide, the most prevalent species is P. falciparum (around 96%), which is the most lethal species (300,000 deaths worldwide in 2017), and P. vivax, which has the most extensive geographical distribution.
  • 67
  • 26 Oct 2021
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