Topic Review
β-Thalassemia Heterozygotes
β-Thalassemia is the most prevalent single gene blood disorder, while the assessment of its susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) warrants it a pressing biomedical priority.
  • 163
  • 02 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Whole Ovary Cryopreservation and Transplantation
The aim of this systematic review is to shed light on the challenges of whole ovary cryopreservation and transplantation and to summarize the solutions that have been proposed so far in animal experiments and humans in order to stimulate further research in the field.
  • 194
  • 16 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Wet Nurses in Spanish Monarchy
In Spain, the wet nurse had a prominent place in the Court of Philip II (1540–1580), suckling princes. These wet nurses were treated as ladies, as they came from wealthy families related to royalty. The services of wet nurses from neighbouring localities to the court were used. They had to be of good appearance and in excellent health. They were hired because of the need for survival of the infants, children of Philip II. The functions of the four wives of Philip II were relegated to reproduction, childcare, family and monarchical duties. They used empirical medicine in the form of prescriptions for beauty, hygiene and feminine care. The wet nurses were the driving force that promoted the health of babies through breastfeeding.
  • 90
  • 28 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Vulvodynia is one the most common causes of pain during sexual intercourse in premenopausal women. The burden of vulvodynia in a woman’s life can be devastating due to its consequences in the couple’s sexuality and intimacy, in activities of daily living, and psychological well-being.
  • 96
  • 06 Jul 2021
Topic Review
Vitamin D and Preeclampsia
Preeclampsia (PE) is a set of clinical symptoms that appears after the 20th week of pregnancy. It is a multi-organ disease characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, and in the absence of proteinuria—an impairment of the functions of the internal organs. With regard to the multiple mechanisms of action of Vit D, its deficiency seems to be one of the possible factors conducive to PE development. It has been suggested that the consequence of low Vit D levels may be the appearance of an early, severe form of PE, and its supplementation may be a protective factor against its recurrence in subsequent pregnancies [232]. The relationship between Vit D and PE development may explain its impact on implantation, angiogenesis, and endothelial status, regulation of the immune response, effect on RAAS, and calcium metabolism. 
  • 114
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Vibrational Biospectroscopy for Endometrial Cancer Diagnosis and Screening
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the sixth most common cancer and the fourth leading cause of death among women worldwide. Early detection and treatment are associated with a favourable prognosis and reduction in mortality. Unlike other common cancers, however, screening strategies lack the required sensitivity, specificity and accuracy to be successfully implemented in clinical practice and current diagnostic approaches are invasive, costly and time consuming. Such limitations highlight the unmet need to develop diagnostic and screening alternatives for EC, which should be accurate, rapid, minimally invasive and cost-effective. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, Mid-Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy and Raman, exploit the atomic vibrational absorption induced by interaction of light and a biological sample, to generate a unique spectral response: a “biochemical fingerprint”. These are non-destructive techniques and, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, have been shown over the last decade to provide discrimination between cancerous and healthy samples, demonstrating a promising role in both cancer screening and diagnosis. 
  • 106
  • 18 May 2022
Topic Review
Vascular Dysfunction in Preeclampsia
Preeclampsia is a life-threatening pregnancy-associated cardiovascular disorder characterized by hypertension and proteinuria at 20 weeks of gestation. Potential abnormalities include impaired placentation, incomplete spiral artery remodeling, and endothelial damage, which are further propagated by immune factors, mitochondrial stress, and an imbalance of pro- and antiangiogenic substances. Newfound evidence indicates that vasopressin is an early mediator and biomarker of the disorder, and promising future therapeutic avenues include mitigating mitochondrial dysfunction, excess oxidative stress, and the resulting inflammatory state.
  • 173
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Vaginal pH Value in Common Vaginitis
In modern society, 75% of all women worldwide have had vaginitis at least once in their lives. The vagina has a dynamic microbial ecosystem with varying vaginal pH levels. An imbalance in that ecosystem can alter the vaginal pH and tip the scale to the point of causing issues, such as vaginitis, that require medical attention. Although vaginitis is not an incurable disease, it causes discomfort and pain that disrupt women’s daily lives. The most common causes of vaginitis include bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis. In this review, we discuss the causes, diagnostic methods, and symptoms of different types of vaginitis, the relationship of vaginitis to the prevalence of other diseases, issues associated with recurrent vaginitis and the immune system, and a variety of effective available treatments.
  • 141
  • 03 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Vaginal Infections
Vaginal infection is defined as vaginal microbiota dysbiosis where one or more microbes are dominant to the other microbes present in the vagina. The symptoms of vaginal infection include abnormal vaginal discharge, burning sensation, itching, irritation, and discomfort. Nevertheless, some women with vaginal infection present with fewer symptoms whereas some cases were found to be asymptomatic.
  • 127
  • 12 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Uterus Transplantation
Absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI) includes congenital uterine malformation and defects, such as Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, which occurs in one in 5000 women; acquired uterine defects caused by treatment of uterine cancers or hysterectomy due to puerperal bleeding; extended uterine myomatosis; and Asherman’s syndrome, in which the endometrium is adhered.
  • 137
  • 18 Feb 2021
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