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in Oral Malignancy
Candida albicans is a commensal fungal species that commonly colonizes the human body, but it is also a pervasive opportunistic pathogen in patients with malignant diseases. A growing body of evidence suggests that this fungus is not only coincidental in oncology patients, but may also play an active role in the development of cancer. More specifically, several studies have investigated the potential association between C. albicans and various types of cancer, including oral, esophageal, and colorectal cancer, with a possible role of this species in skin cancer as well. The proposed mechanisms include the production of carcinogenic metabolites, modulation of the immune response, changes in cell morphology, microbiome alterations, biofilm production, the activation of oncogenic signaling pathways, and the induction of chronic inflammation. These mechanisms may act together or independently to promote cancer development.
10 Oct 2023
It was found that Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) was frequently found at the peri-implantitis site. P. gingivalis is a Gram-negative, obligately anaerobic, non-motile, and non-spore-forming bacterium with several virulence factors: hyaluronidase and chondroitin sulfatase enzymes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) capsule, fimbriae, collagenase, and aminopeptidase.
02 Sep 2022
3D Guided Insertion of Orthodontic Titanium Miniscrews
Orthodontic mini-implants (MIs), also called temporary anchorage devices (TADs), have been considered to be effective tools for intraoral anchorage reinforcement for many years. Their main advantages are their easy application, the possibility to use them at various stages of treatment and the predictability of biomechanical effects.
10 Dec 2021
3D Printing for Periodontal Regeneration
The three-dimensional printing of scaffolds is an interesting alternative to the traditional techniques of periodontal regeneration. This technique uses computer assisted design and manufacturing after CT scan. After 3D modelling, individualized scaffolds are printed by extrusion, selective laser sintering, stereolithography, or powder bed inkjet printing. These scaffolds can be made of one or several materials such as natural polymers, synthetic polymers, or bioceramics.
14 Apr 2021
3D Printing of Dental Prostheses
Revolutionary fabrication technologies such as three-dimensional (3D) printing to develop dental structures are expected to replace traditional methods due to their ability to establish constructs with the required mechanical properties and detailed structures. Three-dimensional printing, as an additive manufacturing approach, has the potential to rapidly fabricate complex dental prostheses by employing a bottom-up strategy in a layer-by-layer fashion. This new technology allows dentists to extend their degree of freedom in selecting, creating, and performing the required treatments. Three-dimensional printing has been narrowly employed in the fabrication of various kinds of prostheses and implants. There is still an on-demand production procedure that offers a reasonable method with superior efficiency to engineer multifaceted dental constructs.
05 May 2023
3D-Printed Splints Therapy for Temporomandibular Disorders
In the field of dentistry, digital technology is developing very quickly. There is an increasing demand for the most efficient use of expensive digital equipment. More and more dental practices are using digital scanners and digital facebows. It is an excellent option to improve 3D splint therapy in temporomandibular disorders. Dental offices and dental laboratories will rapidly adopt 3D-printed orthodontic appliances. The benefits are its accuracy and a light workload. It is precise, long-lasting, less expensive and quicker than the conventional method.
25 May 2023
5-Aminolevulinic Acid Photodynamic Therapy in Cancer Treatment
5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy (5-ALA-PDT) is a therapeutic option for a variety of cutaneous and internal malignancies. PDT uses a photosensitizer that, activated by light in the presence of molecule oxygen, forms ROS, which are responsible for the apoptotic activity of the malignant tissues. 5-ALA is usually used as an endogenous pro-photosensitizer because it is converted to Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which enters into the process of heme synthesis and contextually becomes a photosensitizer, radiating a red fluorescent light. PDT has the benefit of being administered before or after chemotherapy, radiation, or surgery, without impairing the efficacy of these treatment techniques. Furthermore, sensitivity to PDT is unaffected by the negative effects of chemotherapy or radiation.
30 May 2023
Accuracy of 3-Dimensionally Printed Full-Arch Dental Models
Accuracy of 3D printed models varied widely between <100 to >500 μm with the majority of models deemed of clinically acceptable accuracy. The smallest (3.3 μm) and largest (579 μm) mean errors were produced by SLA printers. For digital light processing (DLP), majority of investigated printers (n = 6/8) produced models with <100 μm accuracy. Manufacturing parameters, including layer thickness, base design, postprocessing and storage, significantly influenced the model’s accuracy.
21 Dec 2021
Acrylate Polymers in Dentistry
Concerning the composition and method of polymerization initiation, polymers for the production of denture bases are divided into four types: heat-, cold-, light-, and microwave-polymerized. Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) acrylate dentures are made from factory blocks of dental acrylates and show optimal mechanical and physical properties, undoubtedly better monomer polymerization and thus biocompatibility, and stability of the shape and colour of the base and dentures. Regardless of the number of advantages that these polymers have to offer, they also exhibit certain disadvantages. Technological development enables the enhancement of all acrylate properties to respond better to the demands of the profession. Special attention should be paid to improving the biological characteristics of acrylate polymers, due to reported adverse reactions of patients and dental staff to potentially toxic substances released during their preparation and use.
03 Nov 2022
Additive Manufacturing Processes
Additive manufacturing (AM, 3D printing) is used in many fields and different industries. In the medical and dental field, every patient is unique and, therefore, AM has significant potential in personalized and customized solutions. This text explores what additive manufacturing processes and materials are utilized in medical and dental applications, especially focusing on processes that are less commonly used. The processes are categorized in ISO/ASTM process classes: powder bed fusion, material extrusion, VAT photopolymerization, material jetting, binder jetting, sheet lamination and directed energy deposition combined with classification of medical applications of AM. Based on the findings, it seems that directed energy deposition is utilized rarely only in implants and sheet lamination rarely for medical models or phantoms. Powder bed fusion, material extrusion and VAT photopolymerization are utilized in all categories. Material jetting is not used for implants and biomanufacturing, and binder jetting is not utilized for tools, instruments and parts for medical devices. The most common materials are thermoplastics, photopolymers and metals such as titanium alloys. If standard terminology of AM would be followed, this would allow a more systematic review of the utilization of different AM processes.
09 Apr 2021
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