Topic Review
Electrospinning in GBR
Nanofibre-based membranes or scaffolds exhibit high surface-to-volume ratio, which allows an improved cell adhesion, representing an attractive subgroup of biomaterials due to their unique properties. Guided bone regeneration is a surgical procedure in which bone regeneration, due to bone atrophy following tooth loss, is “guided” by an occlusive barrier. New approaches such as multifunctional multilayering and coupling with bone promoting factors or antimicrobial agents, makes this technology very attractive also for bone regeneration procedures. The technical limitations of traditional electrospinning strategies for bone-tissue engineering applications might be critical for the preparation of three-dimensional scaffolds.  
  • 479
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Gingival Crevicular Fluid
The Gingival Crevicular Fluid (GCF) consists of various host and bacterial-derived products as well as biomarkers which in turn can be evaluated for the diagnosis, prognosis as well as management of the periodontal disease. 
  • 452
  • 23 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Mandibular Leeway Space of Taiwanese Children
Leeway space, the most crucial space for the alignment of permanent teeth, is the difference between the sum of the mesiodistal crown widths of the primary canines and molars and that of their successors, the permanent canines and premolars. Primary molars have greater mesiodistal crown widths than the permanent premolars that replace them, especially the primary second molar. Leeway space has been preserved and utilized to resolve crowding, particularly by allowing the first molars to drift mesially to establish a Class I molar relationship in the late mixed dentition.
  • 418
  • 10 Nov 2021
Topic Review
3D Printing for Periodontal Regeneration
The three-dimensional printing of scaffolds is an interesting alternative to the traditional techniques of periodontal regeneration. This technique uses computer assisted design and manufacturing after CT scan. After 3D modelling, individualized scaffolds are printed by extrusion, selective laser sintering, stereolithography, or powder bed inkjet printing. These scaffolds can be made of one or several materials such as natural polymers, synthetic polymers, or bioceramics.
  • 403
  • 14 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Oxidative Stress in Periodontal Disease
Periodontal disease dominates as the most common inflammatory disease in the oral cavity. There is growing evidence on the involvement of oxidative stress, which is simply described as the imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of the former, in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease. Redox mechanistic insights that underlie immuno-inflammatory pathway may thus advance our understanding about periodontal pathogenesis, serving as the background for the development of efficient strategies for periodontal disease prevention and treatment.
  • 401
  • 15 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Effects of Cinnamon in Dentistry
Dental medicine is one of the fields of medicine where the most common pathologies are of bacterial and fungal origins. This review is mainly focused on the antimicrobial effects of cinnamon essential oil (EO), cinnamon extracts, and pure compounds against different oral pathogens and the oral biofilm and the possible effects on soft mouth tissue. Basic information is provided about cinnamon, as is a review of its antimicrobial properties against the most common microorganisms causing dental caries, endodontic and periodontal lesions, and candidiasis. Cinnamon EO, cinnamon extracts, and pure compounds show significant antimicrobial activities against oral pathogens and could be beneficial in caries and periodontal disease prevention, endodontics, and candidiasis treatment
  • 397
  • 20 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Nanomaterials for Optical Coherence Tomography in Nanodentistry
There is already a societal awareness of the growing impact of nanoscience and nanotechnology, with nanomaterials (with at least one dimension less than 100 nm) now incorporated in items as diverse as mobile phones, clothes or dentifrices. In the healthcare area, nanoparticles of biocompatible materials have already been used for cancer treatment or bioimaging enhancement. Nanotechnology in dentistry, or nanodentistry, has already found some developments in dental nanomaterials for caries management, restorative dentistry and orthodontic adhesives. 
  • 394
  • 01 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Health and Oral Health Coaching
Health-related behavior based on diet is an important determinant of oral health in independent elderly. Aging impairs senses, mastication, oral status, and function, causing nutritional needs and diet insufficiencies that contribute to a vicious circle of impairment. But the present needs of independent older adults suggest that health research and oral health care should shift from disease management and therapy to integral customized and personal treatment plans, including lifestyle, psychological, nutritional, and oral health coaching approaches. In this paper health coaching approaches in medical and dental settings are valued as to their effectiveness for older adults. Furthermore, coaching approaches for seniors are discussed and coaching models for better senior patient-dentist cooperation on the diet issue are suggested. Diet and oral health coaching is proven to be a modern senior patient-centered approach that needs to be incorporated at all relevant settings. It should aim to empower older adults in co-management of their oral diseases or bad diet habits affecting their oral health. This can be carried out through an incorporated educational plan for dentists either at the postgraduate or professional level since advantages seem to enhance the quality of life of the independent elderly.
  • 384
  • 31 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Additive Manufacturing Processes
Additive manufacturing (AM, 3D printing) is used in many fields and different industries. In the medical and dental field, every patient is unique and, therefore, AM has significant potential in personalized and customized solutions. This text explores what additive manufacturing processes and materials are utilized in medical and dental applications, especially focusing on processes that are less commonly used. The processes are categorized in ISO/ASTM process classes: powder bed fusion, material extrusion, VAT photopolymerization, material jetting, binder jetting, sheet lamination and directed energy deposition combined with classification of medical applications of AM. Based on the findings, it seems that directed energy deposition is utilized rarely only in implants and sheet lamination rarely for medical models or phantoms. Powder bed fusion, material extrusion and VAT photopolymerization are utilized in all categories. Material jetting is not used for implants and biomanufacturing, and binder jetting is not utilized for tools, instruments and parts for medical devices. The most common materials are thermoplastics, photopolymers and metals such as titanium alloys. If standard terminology of AM would be followed, this would allow a more systematic review of the utilization of different AM processes.
  • 368
  • 09 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Titanium Alloys in Maxillofacial Osteosynthesis
Titanium alloys are known for their biological, mechanical and chemical properties, which have successfully expanded their use in the maxillofacial field. The internal fixation using titanium miniplates and screws offers a new perspective for the treatment of trauma, in orthognathic surgery and maxillofacial oncology. Although, titanium is highly recommended for its excellent biocompatibility, recent research has focused on identifying the potential local and general implications of the interactions between the human tissue and the metallic particles. This present review aims to outline the existing tissue changes, cellular alterations and future perspectives regarding the use of titanium-based alloys as osteosynthesis materials, taking into consideration the existing present debate whether the routinely removal of these materials should be an indication.
  • 360
  • 28 Oct 2020
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