Topic Review
Monochromatic X-rays
Monochromatic X-ray has a single energy level in contrast to white X-rays used in conventional radiation therapy. Irradiation of high Z elements such as gadolinium, gold and silver with a monochromatic X-ray can result in photoelectric effects that includes the release of the Auger electrons that have strong cell killing effect. To apply this principle to cancer therapy, various nanoparticles loaded with high Z elements have been developed that enabled high Z elements to be delivered to tumor. The recent addition is gadolinium-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticle (Gd-MSN). Tumor spheroids have been used as a convenient tumor model to demonstrate that monochromatic X-rays with energy level at or higher than the K-edge energy of gadolinium can destruct tumor mass that has Gd-MSN distributed throughout tumor spheroids.
  • 3105
  • 22 Jul 2020
Topic Review
Lithium-Ion Battery Fire Suppression
Lithium-ion Batteries (LiBs) hazards, techniques for mitigating risks, the suppression of LiB fires and identification of shortcomings for future improvement were thoroughly reviewed. Water is identified as an efficient cooling and suppressing agent and water mist is considered the most promising technique to extinguish LiBs fire. 
  • 1743
  • 29 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Teleparallel Equivalent of General Relativity
The teleparallel equivalent of general relativity (TEGR) is an alternative geometrical formulation of the relativistic theory of gravitation. A brief description of the  TEGR is presented. The building blocks of the theory and few main achievements are discussed.
  • 1627
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Closed Timelike Curves
Closed timelike curves (CTCs) are space-time trajectories that return to their starting point without violating the laws of special relativity. A traveler along a CTC could journey into the future but arrive in its past, creating a possible violation of the principle of causality. Such CTCs occur in Gödel’s rotating universe and many other general relativistic solutions of classical Einstein’s field equations. The chronological protection conjecture suggests that Nature forbids this kind of situation.
  • 1571
  • 27 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Asymmetric Conductivity in Heavy-Fermion Metals
We consider the time reversal T and particle-antiparticle C symmetries that, being most fundamental, can be violated at microscopic level by a weak interaction. The notable example here is from condensed matter, where strongly correlated Fermi systems like HF metals and high-Tc superconductors (or HF compounds) exhibit C and T symmetries violation due to the so-called non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior rather than to microscopic inter-particle interaction. When a HF compound is near the topological fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT), it exhibits the NFL properties, so that the C symmetry breaks down, making the differential tunneling conductivity to be an asymmetric function of the bias voltage V. This asymmetry does not take place in normal metals, where Landau Fermi liquid (LFL) theory holds. Under the application of magnetic field, a HF compound transits to the LFL state, and σ(V) becomes symmetric function of V. These findings are in good agreement with experimental observations. We suggest that the same topological FCQPT defines the baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Thus, the most fundamental features of the nature are defined by its topological and symmetry properties.
  • 777
  • 29 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Gyrotrons
Gyrotrons are among the most powerful sources of coherent radiation that operate in CW and long pulse regimes in the sub-THz and the THz frequency ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e. between 0.3 THz and 3.0 THz (corresponding to wavelengths from 1.0 to 0.1 mm). This region, which spans between the frequency bands occupied by various electronic and photonic devices, respectively, is habitually called a THz power gap. The underlying mechanism of the operation of the gyrotron involves a formation of bunches of electrons gyrating in a helical electron beam and their synchronous interaction with a fast (i.e. having a superluminal phase velocity) electromagnetic wave, producing a bremsstrahlung radiation. In contrast to the slow-wave tubes, which utilize tiny structures with dimensions comparable to the wavelength of the radiation, the gyrotrons have a simpler resonant system (cavity resonator) with dimensions that are much greater than the wavelength. This allows much more powerful electron beams to be used and thus higher output powers to be achieved. Although in comparison with the classical microwave tubes the gyrotrons are characterized by greater volume and weight due to the presence of bulky parts (such as superconducting magnets and massive collectors where the energy of the spent electron beam is dissipated) they are much more compact and can easily be embedded in a sophisticated laboratory equipment (e.g. spectrometers, technological systems, etc.) than other devices such as free-electron lasers (FEL) and radiation sources based on electron accelerators. Nowadays, the gyrotrons are used as powerful sources of coherent radiation in the wide fields of high-power sub-THz and THz science and technologies [1][2][3].
  • 746
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Thermodynamic Dissipation Theory of Life
The Thermodynamic Dissipation Theory of the Origin and Evolution of Life argues that the escence of the origin of life was the microscopic dissipative structuring under UVC light of organic pigments (now known as the fundamental molecules of life - those common to all three domains) and their proliferation over the entire Earth surface, driven by the thermodynamic imperative of dissipating this part of the Archean solar spectrum into heat. With time, dissipative structuring led to ever more complex biosynthetic pathways for creating pigments and their support structures (and processes) which could dissipate not only the UVC region but also other UV regions and the visible wavelengths, until today reaching the "red edge" (at approximately 700 nm). The heat of dissipation of photons absorbed on organic pigments in water then catalyzes a host of coupled secondary dissipative processes such as; the water cycle, ocean and wind currents, hurricanes, etc. pushing the limit for dissipation of the incident light even further towards the infrared. The thermodynamic dissipation theory thus assgins an explicit thermodynamic function to life; the dissipative structuring, proliferation, and evolution of molecular pigments and their complexes from common precursor carbon based molecules under the impressed short wavelength solar photon potential to perform the explicit thermodynamic function of dissipating this light into long wavelength infrared light (heat). In a general sense, the origin of life is no different than the origin of other dissipative structuring processes like hurricanes and the water cycle, except that these latter processes deal with structuring involving hydrogen bonding while life deals with structuring involving covalent bonding. The external photon potential supplied continuously by the environment (our Sun), and its dissipation into heat by the assembly of dissipative structures, are, therefore, both integral components necessary for understanding life. Difficult problems related to the origin of life, such as enzyme-less replication of RNA and DNA, homochirality of the fundamental molecules, and the origin of amino acid -codon assignments (information encoding in RNA and DNA), also find simple explanations within this same dissipative thermodynamic framework once the existence of a relation between primordial RNA and DNA replication and UV-C photon dissipation is established.
  • 577
  • 04 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Ionizing Irradiations in Food Industry
The ionizing radiations are particles or waves containing enough energy to ionize the matter when coming in contact. Their mode of action in living cells involves either the direct destruction of nucleic acid or by creating free radicals that can attack the cellular components. This cellular destruction and inactivation can be used to reduce the microbial burden in food items to increase the shelf life and safety of food, meanwhile maintaining the quality of the product. Although this technology is accepted by more than 60 countries, some consumers are reluctant to buy such products thinking that radiations might have modified their food which can also induce changes in their body after consumption. The proper scientific communication regarding the safety of ionization irradiations can change consumer behavior, and it requires the collaboration of all stakeholders in the food production chain. 
  • 541
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Hidden Jahn-Teller and Pseudo-Jahn-Teller effects
The source of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) in polyatomic systems, attributed to the Jahn-Teller effect (in electronic degenerate states) or to the pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect (under the condition of pseudodegeneracy), is complemented with the notions of hidden Jahn-Teller effect (h-JTE) and hidden pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect (h-PJTE) to stand for the cases when neither electronic degeneracy, nor pseudodegeneracy is present, but the system is still spontaneously distorted. The h-JTE and h-PJTE occur due to, respectively, the JTE and PJTE in the excited states of the undistorted system, but being strong enough, they penetrate its ground state forming a stable configuration with lower symmetry and (possibly) different spin.
  • 481
  • 11 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Quantum Measurement
The Special State Theory of Quantum MeasurementL. S. Schulman1   There is only pure unitary time evolution in the special state theory of quantum measurement. In this, it resembles the Many Worlds Interpretation. Nevertheless, there is only one world. This is accomplished by means of “special states” and significant modification the arrow of time. Experimental tests are described, although they have yet to be done.
  • 372
  • 29 Oct 2020
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