Topic Review
Formalising Biodiversity Inclusive Design
Biodiversity Inclusive Design (BID) is an approach to design that seeks to foster functional ecological systems, enable species’ persistence within the built environment and (re) connect people with nature. BID can support designers’ quest toward biodiversity positivity.
  • 19
  • 17 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Intangible Mosaic of Sacred Soundscapes in Medieval Serbia
The sacred art and architecture of medieval Serbia developed under the influence of both the Byzantine East and Latin West ever since the adoption of Christianity.  Here, the focuses are particularly on the period from the late 12th century when the Nemanjić dynasty came to the throne until the fall of Serbia under Ottoman rule in the mid-15th century, because this period was fundamental for the development of the Serbian Orthodox Church as well as sacred architecture. It is argued that the archaeoacoustic studies of medieval sacred soundscapes should not be limited to church acoustics but also include open-air sacred sites to provide a complete analysis of the aural environment of religious practice and thus contribute to understanding the acoustic intention of medieval builders, as well as the aural experience of both clergy and laity. 
  • 104
  • 16 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Adaptive Façades
Adaptive building envelope systems can manage energy and mass transformation between indoor and outdoor environments, which contributes to the achievement of environmental benefits via reducing energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission while maintaining human comfort and well-being.
  • 44
  • 06 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Learning Disabilities of Chinese Students
Children with learning disabilities were screened mainly through three ways: the ability–achievement discrepancy approach, Response to Intervention (RTI) and cognitive and neuropsychological assessment of Processing Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW).
  • 23
  • 03 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Children’s Drawings and People’s Subjective Well-Being
Applying the thinking and visual characteristics of children's paintings in artwork can stimulate people's happiness, inspire artists, and arouse the public’s happiness by visual means.  
  • 61
  • 30 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Eight Immortals Metaverse
The metaverse has gained popularity recently in many areas including social media, healthcare, education and manufacturing. Here researchers describe a cultural heritage metaverse for eight immortals.
  • 66
  • 27 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Architectural Perspective of Ant Nests
Ants are excellent architects in the animal kingdom. The activities of “design”, “material selection” and “construction” of their nests are full of magical secrets. After hundreds of millions of years of survival of the fittest, the nests of each species of ant are generally characterised by reasonable structure and good mechanical performance, and also reflect the law of “obtaining large and solid living space with the least amount of material”. The complex underground ant colony nest system is large in scale, stable in internal environmental characteristics, has excellent ventilation, appropriate humidity and temperature, and makes use of natural barriers, such as thin grasses, trees, sand and stone, around entrances and exits, as well as having good physical structure, resistant to pressure, water, heat and moisture. Ants have very strict requirements on the size, weight, lustre and colour of the building materials for the nest, such as soil particles. As social insects, ants are responsible for the site selection and materials selection of their nests, the design of the whole nest, organising and coordinating the grand construction process, and managing the nest. 
  • 69
  • 26 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Seismic Rehabilitation Techniques for Cultural Heritage
Increased awareness of the importance of preserving old masonry structures of cultural heritage has turned to the development of sustainable strategies for their reconstruction and seismic strengthening. Strengthening the fabric and structure of the building are the only means by which it is possible to reduce the effects of an earthquake. Repair and reconstruction techniques must be properly selected in accordance with the structure and characteristics of the material. Historical buildings do not have their cultural significance exclusively as relics from the past, and the value of architectural heritage is not only in its appearance, but also in the integrity of all its components as a unique product of the specific construction technology of its time. 
  • 58
  • 16 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Physical Body
In physics, a physical body or physical object (or simply a body or object) is an identifiable collection of matter, which may be constrained by an identifiable boundary, and may move as a unit by translation or rotation, in 3-dimensional space. In common usage, an object is a collection of matter within a defined contiguous boundary in 3-dimensional space. The boundary must be defined and identified by the properties of the material. The boundary may change over time. The boundary is usually the visible or tangible surface of the object. The matter in the object is constrained (to a greater or lesser degree) to move as one object. The boundary may move in space relative to other objects that it is not attached to (through translation and rotation). An object's boundary may also deform and change over time in other ways. Also in common usage, an object is not constrained to consist of the same collection of matter. Atoms or parts of an object may change over time. An object is defined by the simplest representation of the boundary consistent with the observations. However the laws of Physics only apply directly to objects that consist of the same collection of matter. Each object has a unique identity, independent of any other properties. Two objects may be identical, in all properties except position, but still remain distinguishable. In most cases the boundaries of two objects may not overlap at any point in time. The property of identity allows objects to be counted. Examples of models of physical bodies include, but are not limited to a particle, several interacting smaller bodies (particles or other), and continuous media. The common conception of physical objects includes that they have extension in the physical world, although there do exist theories of quantum physics and cosmology which may challenge this. In modern physics, "extension" is understood in terms of the spacetime: roughly speaking, it means that for a given moment of time the body has some location in the space, although not necessarily a point. A physical body as a whole is assumed to have such quantitative properties as mass, momentum, electric charge, other conserving quantities, and possibly other quantities. A body with known composition and described in an adequate physical theory is an example of physical system.
  • 80
  • 12 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Restoration Movement
The Restoration Movement (also known as the American Restoration Movement or the Stone-Campbell Movement, and pejoratively as Campbellism) is a Christian movement that began on the United States frontier during the Second Great Awakening (1790–1840) of the early 19th century. The pioneers of this movement were seeking to reform the church from within and sought "the unification of all Christians in a single body patterned after the church of the New Testament.":54 Especially since the mid-20th century, members of these churches do not identify as Protestant but simply as Christian.:213 The Restoration Movement developed from several independent strands of religious revival that idealized early Christianity. Two groups, which independently developed similar approaches to the Christian faith, were particularly important. The first, led by Barton W. Stone, began at Cane Ridge, Kentucky, and identified as "Christians". The second began in western Pennsylvania and Virginia (now West Virginia) and was led by Thomas Campbell and his son, Alexander Campbell, both educated in Scotland; they eventually used the name "Disciples of Christ". Both groups sought to restore the whole Christian church on the pattern set forth in the New Testament, and both believed that creeds kept Christianity divided. In 1832 they joined in fellowship with a handshake. Among other things, they were united in the belief that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God; that Christians should celebrate the Lord's Supper on the first day of each week; and that baptism of adult believers by immersion in water is a necessary condition for salvation. Because the founders wanted to abandon all denominational labels, they used the biblical names for the followers of Jesus.:27 Both groups promoted a return to the purposes of the 1st-century churches as described in the New Testament. One historian of the movement has argued that it was primarily a unity movement, with the restoration motif playing a subordinate role.:8 The Restoration Movement has since divided into multiple separate groups. There are three main branches in the U.S.: the Churches of Christ, the unaffiliated Christian Church/Church of Christ congregations, and the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). Some characterize the divisions in the movement as the result of the tension between the goals of restoration and ecumenism: the Churches of Christ and unaffiliated Christian Church/Church of Christ congregations resolved the tension by stressing restoration, while the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) resolved the tension by stressing ecumenism.:383 A number of groups outside the U.S. also have historical associations with this movement, such as the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada and the Churches of Christ in Australia. Because the Restoration Movement lacks any centralized structure, having originated in a variety of places with different leaders, there is no consistent nomenclature for the movement as a whole. The term "Restoration Movement" became popular during the 19th century; this appears to be due to the influence of Alexander Campbell's essays on "A Restoration of the Ancient Order of Things" in the Christian Baptist. The term "Stone-Campbell Movement" emerged towards the end of the 20th century as a way to avoid the difficulties associated with some of the other names that have been used, and to maintain a sense of the collective history of the movement.
  • 98
  • 08 Dec 2022
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