Topic Review
Antibiotics Remediation Technologies
Antibiotics are used widely in human medicine, veterinary medicine, and agriculture. However, a portion of these compounds is excreted by treated organisms, entering water bodies through hospital effluents, domestic sewage, and agricultural waste. Furthermore, pharmaceutical production and improper disposal contribute to environmental contamination. The presence of antibiotics in the environment can have highly adverse consequences, such as the development and dissemination of bacterial resistance, reducing the effectiveness of antibiotics in treating infections. Several techniques are available for treating antibiotic contamination in water, including physical, chemical, and biological processes. The variety of techniques allows adaptation to the specific conditions of each case, selecting the most effective and cost-effective method considering the available infrastructure. 
  • 349
  • 18 Jun 2024
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
A Review of Event-Based Conceptual Rainfall-Runoff Models: A Case for Australia
Event-based models focus on modelling of peak runoff from rainfall data. Conceptual models indicate simplified models that provide reasonably accurate answers despite their crude nature. Rainfall-runoff models are used to transform a rainfall event into a runoff event. This paper focuses on reviewing computational simulation of rainfall-runoff processes over a catchment. Lumped conceptual, event-based rainfall-runoff models have remained the dominant practice for design flood estimation in Australia for many years due to their simplicity, flexibility, and accuracy under certain conditions. Attempts to establish regionalization methods for prediction of design flood hydrographs in ungauged catchments have seen little success. Therefore, as well as reviewing key rainfall-runoff model components for design flood estimation with a special focus on event-based conceptual models, this paper covers the aspects of regionalization to promote their applications to ungauged catchments.
  • 190
  • 13 Jun 2024
Topic Review
Synthesis TiO2/ZnO Nanoparticles Based on Plant Extracts
Possible eco-friendly synthesis of TiO2, ZnO, as well as a few special nanomaterials, using different plant extracts instead of harmful organic solutions. The main role of the biomolecules in the synthesis of different NPs is the reduction of metal salts, as well as capping and stabilizing them. Hence, the plant-mediated nanomaterials have a variety of different shapes and sizes comparing to the general, chemical-based synthesis processes. Furthermore, these bio-compounds not only reduce the metal salts, but also functionalize the surface of the newly synthesized NPs, which includes synergistic effects for various applications. Furthermore, the pure plant extracts can also act as catalysts. Even though, that these phytochemicals are mainly used as reduction agents, they can also possess photoactivity and can be used as photocatalysts. 
  • 181
  • 13 May 2024
Topic Review
Sustainability in Agriculture
Agricultural sustainability refers to the practice of farming that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It involves managing farms in economically viable, environmentally sound, and socially responsible ways. The concept is built on three main pillars: ecological health, economic profitability, and social equity. 
  • 159
  • 24 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Applications of Multispectral Light Detection and Ranging Technology
Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is a well-established active technology for the direct acquisition of 3D data. In recent years, the geometric information collected by LiDAR sensors has been widely combined with optical images to provide supplementary spectral information to achieve more precise results in diverse remote sensing applications. The emergence of active Multispectral LiDAR (MSL) systems, which operate on different wavelengths, has recently been revolutionizing the simultaneous acquisition of height and intensity information.
  • 183
  • 18 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Hydrogen Production in Arctic Region
The development of markets for low-carbon energy sources requires reconsideration of issues related to extraction and use of oil and gas. Significant reserves of hydrocarbons are concentrated in Arctic territories, e.g., 30% of the world’s undiscovered natural gas reserves and 13% of oil. Associated petroleum gas, natural gas and gas condensate could be able to expand the scope of their applications. Natural gas is the main raw material for the production of hydrogen and ammonia, which are considered promising primary energy resources of the future, the oxidation of which does not release CO2. Complex components contained in associated petroleum gas and gas condensate are valuable chemical raw materials to be used in a wide range of applications.
  • 1.6K
  • 17 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Antibiotic Resistance (ABR) in Aquatic Environments
Antibiotic resistance (ABR) in aquatic environments can cause detrimental effects on ecosystems and public health. 
  • 202
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Chemical Coagulation–Flocculation Technologies and Their Performance
The permanent demand of modern society for water consumption across different industrial and domestic activities involves an increasing requirement for effective facilities that can ensure the treatment of the produced WW (Wastewater) for onsite reuse, recycling, and safe/non-polluting discharge of the final effluents to natural aquatic environments. A few fundamental aspects of WW treatment using different physical, chemical, and biological processes were discussed, with the central goal being focused on the coagulation–flocculation step. Therefore, the role of the coagulation–flocculation step when applied to the treatment of colored textile WW and the advantages and disadvantages of using different chemicals as coagulation–flocculation agents in some industrial WW treatment systems as well as hybrid materials were presented in association with their increased efficiency in comparison to conventional ones.
  • 241
  • 15 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Landolt Indicator Values in Modern Research
The conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem sustainability is essential for human well-being. An important tool for addressing this issue is ecological indicators. 
  • 271
  • 02 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Geographic Description of North Macedonia
North Macedonia is a landlocked country in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula between 40°50′ and 42°20′ north latitude and between 20°28′ and 23°05′ east longitude, with an area of about 25,700 km2.
  • 285
  • 02 Apr 2024
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