Topic Review
Medical Waste Classification and Management Processes
The term “medical waste”, mainly refers to the waste and by-products generated from hospitals and healthcare facilities, which are being produced in huge amounts. To be addressed properly, they need to be segregated and treated according to their properties, level of contamination, and danger to living organisms and the environment. This article illustrates the classification of medical waste, and the steps for managing and compare between processing methods for all types of medical waste.
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  • 04 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Environmental Risk Factors
Environmental health is a growing area of knowledge, continually increasing and updating the body of evidence linking the environment to human health.
  • 5921
  • 03 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Flood Prediction Using ML Models
Floods are among the most destructive natural disasters, which are highly complex to model. The research on the advancement of flood prediction models contributed to risk reduction, policy suggestion, minimization of the loss of human life, and reduction of the property damage associated with floods. To mimic the complex mathematical expressions of physical processes of floods, during the past two decades, machine learning (ML) methods contributed highly in the advancement of prediction systems providing better performance and cost-effective solutions. Due to the vast benefits and potential of ML, its popularity dramatically increased among hydrologists.Researchers through introducing novel ML methods and hybridizing of the existing ones aim at discovering more accurate and efficient prediction models. The main contribution of this paper is to demonstrate the state of the art of ML models in flood prediction and to give insight into the most suitable models. In this paper, the literature where ML models were benchmarked through a qualitative analysis of robustness, accuracy, effectiveness, and speed are particularly investigated to provide an extensive overview on the various ML algorithms used in the field. The performance comparison of ML models presents an in-depth understanding of the different techniques within the framework of a comprehensive evaluation and discussion. As a result, this paper introduces the most promising prediction methods for both long-term and short-term floods. Furthermore, the major trends in improving the quality of flood prediction models are investigated. Among them, hybridization, data decomposition, algorithm ensemble, and model optimization are reported as the most effective strategies for the improvement of ML methods. This survey can be used as a guideline for hydrologists as well as climate scientists in choosing the proper ML method according to the prediction task.
  • 5562
  • 03 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Treatment Techniques of Urban Artificial Landscape Water Bodies
Throughout the literature, terminologies such as “urban artificial water bodies”, “landscape water bodies”, “scenic water bodies”, and “landscape water” are all used to refer to any body of water that is created artificially or organically to enhance the aesthetic of towns, cities, and tourist destinations. They are referred to as artificial landscape water bodies (ALWs). ALWs are among the many green strategies adopted to improve the biodiversity, aesthetics, and general environmental health of urban environments. The challenge of pollution control in ALWs has seen the implementation of physical, chemical, and bio-ecological techniques. Generally, chemical techniques have been credited with providing rapid and effective solution to ALWs eutrophication and algae bloom, however their use may result in secondary pollution and harm to the ecological integrity of these water bodies. Physical techniques have also achieved some success in the control and remedy of ALWs.
  • 10
  • 03 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Properties and Applications of Geopolymer Mortar
Classic cement mortar is often utilised as a standard binding and repairing material in various engineering structures. Many scholars have addressed GPM’s viability and potential applications as a suitable replacement for regular cement mortar. Sathonsaowaphak was the first to investigate geopolymer mortar and studied the properties of bottom ash fineness, ash/liquid alkali ratio, NaOH/Na2SiO3 ratio, NaOH dosage, water to ash ratio, and superplasticiser on the behaviour in terms of workability and compressive strength of GPM. Geopolymer mortar has a mechanical strength of 24–58 MPa, and adding NaOH solution improves the workability performance of GPM without reducing strength. According to the results of Detphan and Chindaprasirt, who prepared GPC using rice husk ash and fly ash and activated by NaOH and NaSiO3 solution as a liquid for the mix, they found that the maximum strength of GPM is acquired by employing a Na2SiO3-to-NaOH mass ratio of four. Moreover, more discussion about geopolymer mortar properties is reported in the following sections.  
  • 40
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Tsunami
A tsunami (Japanese: 津波) (/(t)suːˈnɑːmi, (t)sʊˈ-/ (t)soo-NAH-mee, (t)suu- pronounced [tsɯnami]) is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions (including detonations, landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances) above or below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami. Unlike normal ocean waves, which are generated by wind, or tides, which are generated by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun, a tsunami is generated by the displacement of water. Tsunami waves do not resemble normal undersea currents or sea waves because their wavelength is far longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially resemble a rapidly rising tide. For this reason, it is often referred to as a tidal wave, although this usage is not favoured by the scientific community because it might give the false impression of a causal relationship between tides and tsunamis. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves, with periods ranging from minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "wave train". Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be enormous, and they can affect entire ocean basins. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history, with at least 230,000 people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean. The Ancient Greece historian Thucydides suggested in his 5th century BC History of the Peloponnesian War that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, but the understanding of tsunamis remained slim until the 20th century and much remains unknown. Major areas of current research include determining why some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do; accurately forecasting the passage of tsunamis across the oceans; and forecasting how tsunami waves interact with shorelines.
  • 6
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Agriculture in Ancient Mesopotamia
Agriculture was the main economic activity in ancient Mesopotamia. Operating under harsh constraints, notably the arid climate, the Mesopotamian farmers developed effective strategies that enabled them to support the development of the first states, the first cities, and then the first known empires, under the supervision of the institutions which dominated the economy: the royal and provincial palaces, the temples, and the domains of the elites. They focused above all on the cultivation of cereals (particularly barley) and sheep farming, but also farmed legumes, as well as date palms in the south and grapes in the north. In reality, there were two types of Mesopotamian agriculture, corresponding to the two main ecological domains, which largely overlapped with cultural distinctions. The agriculture of southern or Lower Mesopotamia, the land of Sumer and Akkad, which later became Babylonia received almost no rain and required large scale irrigation works which were supervised by temple estates, but could produce high returns. The agriculture of Northern or Upper Mesopotamia, the land that would eventually become Assyria, had enough rainfall to allow dry agriculture most of the time so that irrigation and large institutional estates were less important, but the returns were also usually lower.
  • 6
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Boreal (Age)
In paleoclimatology of the Holocene, the Boreal was the first of the Blytt-Sernander sequence of north European climatic phases that were originally based on the study of Danish peat bogs, named for Axel Blytt and Rutger Sernander, who first established the sequence. In peat bog sediments, the Boreal is also recognized by its characteristic pollen zone. It was preceded by the Younger Dryas, the last cold snap of the Pleistocene, and followed by the Atlantic, a warmer and moister period than our most recent climate. The Boreal, transitional between the two periods, varied a great deal, at times having within it climates like today's.
  • 6
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
The Shift Project
The Shift Project (also called The Shift or TSP) is a French nonprofit created in 2010 that aims to limit both climate change and the dependency of our economy on fossil fuels.
  • 3
  • 02 Dec 2022
Topic Review
List of Assyrian Tribes
This page features a list of Assyrian clans or tribes historically centered in the Hakkari, Sirnak and Mardin provinces in Turkey and West Azerbaijan Province in Iran, prior to 1915, or before Seyfo, when they were historically Assyrian settlements, before early 20th century resettlement in Northern Iraq (which simultaneously had Catholic-Assyrian tribes since the 1st millennium) and northwestern Syria (namely in Al-Hasakah) after they were displaced, slaughtered and driven out by Ottoman Turks in 1915 and in the early 1930s, respectively, during the Simele massacre where they endured a similar anguish and predicament. From around 2500 BC, Assyrians primarily lived in the ancient Assyrian cities of Nineveh, Assur, Nohadra, Arrapha and Arbela, which now lie in modern-day northern Iraq, and as well as the mountainous Assyrian region of Hakkari in what is now Turkey, from around 2300 BC. Though after the spread of Islam, many eventually left the ancient Assyrian cities in the Nineveh Plains, where they settled and found refuge in the highland region in southeastern Anatolia, with the existing Assyrian population, and northwestern Iran. The villages in southeastern Turkey are primarily centred in the modern-day towns of Yuksekova, Çukurca and Semdinli in Hakkâri, Uludere in Sirnak Province and Tur Abdin in Mardin Province. Most of the historical Assyrian tribes are located in the region stretching from Tur Abdin to Hakkari, in Upper Mesopotamia, which formed the Nairi lands, serving as the northern Assyrian frontier and border with their Urartian rivals. The Assyrians of this region were Nestorian Christians adhering to the Assyrian Church of the East and lived here until 1924, when the very last Assyrians who survived the Assyrian Genocide and massacres that occurred during 1918 were expelled. Most subsequently moved to the Nahla valley in northern Iraq or elsewhere. The people of these tribes are an ancient people of Mesopotamia who speak Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, a modern Syriac language that's derived from old Aramaic and has influences of Akkadian. In the early-mid 20th century, most settled in Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Iran, where many eventually immigrated to the western world in recent years.
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  • 02 Dec 2022
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