Topic Review
Estimate Soil Organic Carbon from Remote Sensing
Monitoring soil organic carbon (SOC) typically assumes conducting a labor-intensive soil sampling campaign, followed by laboratory testing, which is both expensive and impractical for generating useful, spatially continuous data products. 
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  • 26 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Development and Effects of Organic Farms in Poland
Organic farms should, by definition, place particular emphasis on the protection of agricultural soils, landscape care and activities aimed at producing high-quality agricultural products. In Poland, its development strength largely depends on the presence of areas facing natural or other specific constraints (ANCs). Nearly ¾ of organic utilized agriculture area (UAA) is located in communes with a large share of them. Organic farms achieve lower production effects in comparison to conventional farms, and their disproportions also depend on the quality of natural farming conditions. In Poland, the personal competences of farmers are also an important determinant in joining organic farming.
  • 23
  • 26 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Available Agrometeorological Data Sources in Croatia
Precision agriculture (PA) is a data-driven approach to farming that uses a range of ICT solutions—remote sensing, Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI)—to improve and increase crop yields and the profitability of agricultural production, while reducing the amount of resources needed for food production, such as the amount of water, fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides. Croatia consists of three main geographical regions: the Pannonian and para-Pannonian plains in the north and north-east, the central mountain belt in the west and south, and the Croatian coastal area. The Pannonian plains are the most fertile agricultural regions in Croatia, enriched by alluvial deposits from the Sava and Drava rivers. The central mountain belt offers some arable, meadow, and pasture land, while the coastal region is mostly barren and mountainous with little agricultural land.
  • 13
  • 26 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Bisphenol A on Anaerobic Digestion of Sewage Sludge
Anaerobic digestion for stabilizing sewage sludge in WWTPs, which produces biogas and stabilized biosolids, is a mature technology used worldwide. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an alkylphenol composed of acetone and phenol. It is a plastic additive that is most commonly used to produce different industrial and personal care products, e.g., polycarbonate, polysulphone, epoxy, polyacrylate, polyetherimide resins, thermal paper, beverage containers, dental sealant, and so on.
  • 19
  • 26 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Anaerobic Co-Digestion of Primary Sludge and Biowastes
Primary sludge is a valuable substrate for anaerobic digestion as it contains a higher percentage of fatty acids and lipids compared to secondary sludge, although its carbon-to-nitrogen ratio is relatively low due to its inherent deficiency of carbon. This limiting factor of C/N ratio can be overwhelmed by the co-digestion of primary sludge with organic fractions such as agricultural byproducts and municipal solid wastes. The operating principle of this practice is based on the fact that organic fractions such as agricultural byproducts contain a high percentage of carbon and a low percentage of nitrogen, so the co-digestion of primary sludge with different organic fractions, such as animal manure, agricultural residues, organic fractions of municipal waste, or vegetable residues, may improve the balance of nutrients, provide buffering capacity, adjust the C/N ratio, reduce the concentration of ammonia, and hence its inhibitory effects, and overall promote the process of methanogenesis.
  • 13
  • 26 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Watershed Processes and Streamflow Prediction
Accurate streamflow prediction (SFP) is crucial for water resource management, flood and drought forecasting, and reservoir operations. However, complex interactions between surface and subsurface processes in watersheds make predicting extreme events challenging. This work highlights the importance of incorporating physical understanding and process knowledge into data-driven SFP models for reliable and robust predictions, especially during extreme events.
  • 18
  • 26 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Antimony as a Critical Raw Material
Antimony is widely acknowledged as a critical raw material of worldwide significance, based on its recognition by many countries. According to current projections, there is an anticipated increase in the demand for antimony in the forthcoming years. An issue of significant concern within the supply chain, which poses a substantial obstacle to sustainable development, is the global unequal allocation of abundant antimony resources. Most nations exhibited a high degree of dependence on a few countries for their net imports of antimony, resulting in a notable disruption and raising concerns regarding the supply chain. 
  • 33
  • 23 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Triboelectric Nanogenerator Network for Harvesting Ocean Blue Energy
The utilization of abundant blue energy in the ocean could greatly contribute to achieving carbon neutrality. However, the unsolved economic and technical challenges of traditional technologies for harvesting blue energy have resulted in slow progress. Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs), as a new approach for converting mechanical energy into electricity, have great potential for blue energy harvesting, which can be connected as networks with different numbers of units for varying scales of energy harvesting. Anchoring strategies of devices and networks are also discussed. The development of TENG networks could provide an effective solution for large-scale ocean blue energy harvesting, which can also serve as an in-situ energy station or power source for self-powered systems, supporting various marine equipment and activities.
  • 27
  • 23 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Damaged Sandstone Used in the Cathedral of Huesca
In order to manage problems arising from rainwater/rock interaction in Miocene sandstones (calcareous litharenites) widely used in various monuments of the Ebro Valley (NE of Spain), a survey has been conducted with particular application to the building and architectural decorative materials of the Cathedral of Huesca.
  • 31
  • 23 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Climatic Threats and Adaptation of Marine Biodiversity
Oceans play a vital role in socioeconomic and environmental development by supporting activities such as tourism, recreation, and food provision while providing important ecosystem services. However, concerns have been raised about the threat that climate change poses to the functions of oceans.
  • 23
  • 23 Feb 2024
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