Topic Review
Women in Climate Change
The contributions of women in climate change have received increasing attention in the early 21st century. Feedback from women and the issues faced by women have been described as "imperative" by the United Nations and "critical" by the Population Reference Bureau. A report by the World Health Organization concluded that incorporating gender-based analysis would "provide more effective climate change mitigation and adaptation."
  • 395
  • 06 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Wolf Distribution
Wolf distribution is the species distribution of the wolf (Canis lupus). Originally, wolves occurred in Eurasia above the 12th parallel north and in North America above the 15th parallel north. However, deliberate human persecution has reduced the species' range to about one-third, because of livestock predation and fear of wolf attacks on humans. The species is now extirpated (made locally extinct) in much of Western Europe, Mexico, and the contiguous United States , and completely from the British Isles and the Japanese archipelago. In modern history, the gray wolf occurs mostly in wilderness and remote areas, particularly in Canada , Alaska, the Northern United States, Europe and Asia from about the 75th parallel north to the 12th parallel north. Wolf population declines have been arrested since the 1970s, and have fostered recolonization and reintroduction in parts of its former range, due to legal protection, changes in land-use and rural human population shifts to cities. Competition with humans for livestock and game species, concerns over the danger posed by wolves to people, and habitat fragmentation pose a continued threat to the species. Despite these threats, because of the gray wolf's relatively widespread range and stable population, it is classified as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List. In Africa the population of wolves is limited to the northern regions with the African golden wolf (Canis lupaster) north of the Sahara and the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) in Ethiopia.
  • 1.3K
  • 25 Oct 2022
Topic Review
WISDOM Project
The WISDOM Project is a bilateral research project between Germany and Vietnam, focusing on the creation of a Water related Information System for the Mekong Delta. Initiated by the Vietnamese and the German Government it was started in the year 2007, and is planned to continue until the year 2013. Water-related Information System for the sustainable Development of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam
  • 416
  • 24 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Wireless Sensor Network Technology
Wireless sensor network technology enables distributed sensing through efficient data communication between a multitude of environmental sensors. WSN is still a relatively new area of research, but the communication technology used for low-cost, low-power wireless networks has advanced greatly in recent decades.
  • 2.1K
  • 10 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Winkler Index
The Winkler Index, sometimes known as the Winkler Scale or Winkler Regions, is a technique for classifying the climate of wine growing regions based on heat summation or growing degree-days. In the system, geographical areas are divided into five climate regions based on temperature converted to growing degree-days, and is commonly known as Regions I–V (see below). The system was developed at the University of California, Davis by A. J. Winkler and Maynard Amerine.
  • 800
  • 27 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Wind Speed Analysis of Hurricane Sandy
The database of the HWind project sponsored by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for hurricanes between 1994 and 2013 is analysed. Moreover, the wind speed of Hurricane Sandy is studied.
  • 900
  • 18 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Wind Models
Wind forecasts are widely spread because of the growth in wind power, but also because there are other applications to consider, such as the long-term scenario forecasts regarding the effects of global warming. Overall, there have been big developments in global circulation models (GCM) that inform future scenarios at the large scale, but wind forecast at a local scale is a problem that has not totally been solved.
  • 660
  • 26 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Wind Farms and Humidity
Several investigations have shown that enhanced mixing brought about by wind turbines alters near-surface meteorological conditions within and downstream of a wind farm. When scalar meteorological parameters have been considered, the focus has most often centered on temperature changes. A subset of these works has also considered humidity to various extents. These limited investigations are complemented by just a few studies dedicated to analyzing humidity changes. With onshore wind turbines often sited in agricultural areas, any changes to the microclimate surrounding a turbine can impact plant health and the length of the growing season; any changes to the environment around an offshore wind farm can change cloud and fog formation and dissipation, among other impacts. This article provides a review of observational field campaigns and numerical investigations examining changes to humidity within wind turbine array boundary layers. Across the range of empirical observations and numerical simulations, changes to humidity were observed in stably stratified conditions. In addition to the role of atmospheric stability, this review reveals that the nature of the change depends on the upstream moisture profile; robustness of the mixing; turbine array layout; distance from the turbine, in all three directions; and vertical temperature profile.
  • 994
  • 15 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Wildfire Spread Risk Challenge
Wildfires are sudden and destructive natural hazards that pose significant challenges in response and relief efforts. Wildfires occur annually across the globe, influenced by factors such as climate, combustible materials, and ignition sources. In recent years, researchers have shown increasing interest in studying wildfires, resulting in a large number of related studies. These studies cover a variety of topics including wildfire forecasting and forecasting, spatial and temporal pattern analysis, ecological impact assessment, simulation of wildfire behavior, identification of contributing factors, development of risk assessment models, management techniques for combustible materials, firefighting decision-making techniques, and fire protection. burning method. Understanding the factors that influence wildfire spread behavior, employing modeling methods, and conducting risk assessments are critical for effective wildfire prevention, mitigation, and emergency response.
  • 618
  • 16 Jun 2023
Topic Review
Wild Rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) Baby-Leaf
Wild rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia (L.) DC) is a cruciferous perennial herb, spontaneous in the Mediterranean Basin. Here, a study on evaluating the hyperspectral response of plants to bio-based disease resistance inducers is presented.
  • 539
  • 30 Dec 2021
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