Topic Review
Calendar of 13 Months
Has anyone of us missed an event because he was confused between days and dates? Do we really remember the date of any day if we do not have a calendar? Is the current Gregorian Calendar efficient enough for use, and does it really facilitate our life or make it more complicated?  Have you ever thought about a much simpler way to calculate days and dates in a year? All these questions are answered in this article, in which the author proposes an original calendar that might facilitate our lives if we can apply it.
  • 165.1K
  • 12 Jan 2023
Topic Review
North–South Divide in the World
The North–South divide (or Global North and Global South) is a socio-economic and political division of Earth popularized in the late 20th century and early 21st century. Generally, definitions of the Global North include the United States , Canada , almost all the European countries, Israel, Cyprus, Japan , Singapore, South Korea , Taiwan, Australia , and New Zealand. The Global South is made up of Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, Pacific Islands, and the developing countries in Asia, including the Middle East. It is generally seen as home to: Brazil , India and China , which, along with Indonesia and Mexico, are the largest Southern states in terms of land area and population. The North is mostly correlated with the Western world, while the South largely corresponds with the developing countries (previously called "Third World") and Eastern world. The two groups are often defined in terms of their differing levels of wealth, economic development, income inequality, democracy, and political and economic freedom, as defined by freedom indices. States that are generally seen as part of the Global North tend to be wealthier, less unequal and considered more democratic and to be developed countries who export technologically advanced manufactured products; Southern states are generally poorer developing countries with younger, more fragile democracies heavily dependent on primary sector exports and frequently share a history of past colonialism by Northern states. Nevertheless, the divide between the North and the South is often challenged and said to be increasingly incompatible with reality. In economic terms, as of the early 21st century, the North—with one quarter of the world population—controls four-fifths of the income earned anywhere in the world. 90% of the manufacturing industries are owned by and located in the North. Inversely, the South—with three quarters of the world population—has access to one-fifth of the world income. As nations become economically developed, they may become part of definitions the "North", regardless of geographical location; similarly, any nations that do not qualify for "developed" status are in effect deemed to be part of the "South".
  • 57.6K
  • 01 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument
Questionnaire is one of the most widely used tools to collect data in especially social science research. The main objective of questionnaire in research is to obtain relevant information in most reliable and valid manner. Thus the accuracy and consistency of survey/questionnaire forms a significant aspect of research methodology which are known as validity and reliability. Often new researchers are confused with selection and conducting of proper validity type to test their research instrument (questionnaire/survey). 
  • 47.4K
  • 15 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Organizational Environment
The organizational environment is the set of forces surrounding an organization. These forces may hamper or facilitate the organization’s access to resources, which means they can both offer opportunities and pose threats. Moreover, while these resources are valuable for the organization, they are also scarce (Riggio, 2018). The forces encompassed by the concept of the organizational environment include, among others, competition between rivals to retain customers, fast-paced changed in technology, and an increase in the price of raw materials. All these factors may somehow erode an organization’s competitive advantage. Consequently, the forces at play in the environment can influence the organization’s behavior (Truxillo, Bauer & Erdogan, 2016). 
  • 42.6K
  • 02 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Technological Innovation and Economic Growth
Economic growth is a tool for measuring the development and progress of countries, and technological innovation is one of the factors affecting economic growth and contributes to the development and modernization of production methods. Therefore, technological innovation is the main driver for economic growth and human progress. Spending on innovation, research and development as well as investment in innovation supports competition and progress. Accordingly, sustainable economic growth is achieved. This ensures the preservation of resources for future generations and the achievement of economic and social growth. Moreover, a sustainable educational level of the workforce, investment in research, creation of new products, and investor access to stock markets will be ensured through the development of the public and private sectors and the improvement of people’s living conditions.
  • 19.7K
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Digitalisation of organisations and COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic caused profound shifts in the functioning of organisations, with the increased mobilisation of the implementation of digitalisation processes in the activities of the members of these coordinated collective units. In this perspective, based on our academic experience and recent literature, this paper offers some dimensions that seem to us relevant to ponder with special urgency, and that will shape both organisations in the near future and an organisational culture that is, in many cases, renewed.
  • 18.8K
  • 28 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Hyperinflation in Yugoslavia
Between 1992 and 1994, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) experienced the third-longest period of hyperinflation in world economic history. This period spanned 22 months, from March 1992 to January 1994. Inflation peaked at a monthly rate of 313 million percent in January 1994. Daily inflation was 62%, with an inflation rate of 2.03% in 1 hour being higher than the annual inflation rate of many developed countries. The inflation rate in January 1994, converted to annual levels, reached 116,545,906,563,330 percent (116.546 billion percent, or 1.16 × 1015 percent). During this period of hyperinflation in FR Yugoslavia, store prices were stated in conditional units – point, which was equal to the German mark. The conversion was made either in German marks or in dinars at the current "black market" exchange rate that often changed several times per day.
  • 18.6K
  • 14 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Corporate Social Responsibility in the Banking Sector
The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) extends the responsibility of companies beyond the interest of their owners to other stakeholder groups (including employees, customers, regulators, and community), highlighting the necessity to internalize the impact of business activities on the natural environment and the society. CSR is inevitably becoming an increasingly important part of almost every business. This is particularly true for the banking industry, which suffered substantial losses in reputation and public trust in the aftermath of the global financial crisis. Not surprisingly therefore, banks around the world have visibly intensified their CSR efforts.
  • 17.1K
  • 17 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Globalization Impact on Multinational Enterprises
The world is rapidly becoming a global village, a term that is increasingly relevant to multinationals alike. These conglomerates’ development and growth encompass all regions of the world. The globalization era has transformed many multinational enterprises into highly efficient and productive entities that outweigh small countries and grow in power and control.
  • 16.5K
  • 21 Apr 2021
Topic Review
Low-Level Equilibrium Trap
The low-level equilibrium trap is a concept in economics developed by Richard R. Nelson, in which at low levels of per capita income people are too poor to save and invest much, and this low level of investment results in low rate of growth in national income. As per capita income rises above a certain minimum level at which there is zero saving, a rising proportion of income will be saved and invested and this will lead to higher rate of growth in income.
  • 15.4K
  • 29 Nov 2022
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