Topic Review
The Impact of Regulatory Pressures on Governance
abstract: Purpose: With this paper, we aim to provide an insight on the regulatory reforms on corporate governance, brought about, by its ineffectiveness in the global financial crisis. Design/Approach/Methodology: To this effect we compared accounting ratios over a period of 10 years - 5 years prior and during financial crisis (i.e. 2006-2010) and 5-years post regulatory reforms on governance (i.e. 2014-2018) -using panel data of ratios for profitability, liquidity and efficiency. Findings: The general trend in the banks was that profitability and efficiency decreased drastically in the post regulatory period, contrary to liquidity, which increased, as higher capital buffers were imposed on banks. Practical Implications: This study is important because the burden of regulations is detrimental to the performance of public banks in the EU Mediterranean region. There are several arguments that the burden of compliance is becoming very costly and this is negatively affecting their profitability and efficiency. Originality/Value: These findings are of interest to economists and policymakers within the European Mediterranean region. Keywords: Governance, regulations on governance, changes in regulations, performance, financial crisis, governance and performance. JEL code: G21, G28.
  • 1276
  • 28 May 2020
Topic Review
South Korea's Green New Deal
Originally proposed as a post-COVID-19 stimulus plan, the Green New Deal is a sustainability-centered strategy for building a low-carbon and climate-neutral economy. The Green New Deal sets out eight targets to be accomplished under three strategic areas: green urban development, low-carbon decentralized energy, and innovative green industry. The Deal also takes measures to protect the people and sectors at a higher risk of being left behind in the process of the economic transition. It is an upgraded version of the “Green Growth” national policy, with more emphasis on sustainability in addition to the growth aspect.
  • 560
  • 17 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Integrated Maritime Policy
Integrated and ecosystem-based maritime policy should be seen as a versatile multidisciplinary and cross-sectoral instrument for international dialogue within the region.
  • 192
  • 17 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Swiss Federal Act on Gambling
In January 2019, a new Swiss Federal Act on Gambling (Loi federal de jeux d’argent: LJAr) entered into force following a vote by the Swiss electorate. Intended to modernize and harmonize previous law and open the market for online casinos; the new regulations have highlighted the need for a comprehensive monitoring system. 
  • 154
  • 17 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Microgrids for Energy Transition
International, national, and subnational laws and policies call for rapidly decarbonizing energy systems around the globe. This effort relies heavily on renewable electricity and calls for a transition that is: (i) flexible enough to accommodate existing and new electricity end uses and users; (ii) resilient in response to climate change and other threats to electricity infrastructure; (iii) cost-effective in comparison to alternatives; and (iv) just in the face of energy systems that are often the result of—or the cause of—procedural, distributive, and historical injustices. Acknowledging the intertwined roles of technology and policy, this entry provides a cross-disciplinary review of how microgrids may contribute to renewable electricity systems that are flexible, resilient, cost-effective, and just (including illustrative examples from Korea, California, New York, the European Union, and elsewhere). 
  • 130
  • 08 Apr 2021
Topic Review
The Oil Palm Governance Policy in Indonesia
Indonesian palm oil encountered social-agrarian and environmental issues and has been subject to heavy criticism from the international community for years. The Indonesian government answered the very sharp international opinion by implementing standard certification to ensure the achievement of oil palm sustainability. This is especially applied for the small scale plantation at the upstream of the entire palm oil supply chain. Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO) certification has been applied as an instrument of guaranteeing sustainability principles for all business units with a particular attention on smallholders. The system is targeted to address land legality issues, business licensing, plant seedling certification, environmental management, as well as strengthening farmer organizations at the local level. The implementation of ISPO faced challenges and barriers that makes certification is not easy to achieved on the ground. 
  • 125
  • 24 Apr 2022
Topic Review
The Development of E-Commerce on EU Tax Regulations
The term “e-commerce” means online shopping on the World Wide Web, and it can be described as the buying/selling process through the transmission of data remotely.  Compliance with the VAT (value-added tax) regime is addressed in the context described by the two important categories of active legal rules: the rules for consumer protection and the rules related to ensuring data protection. The investigation of the legal framework in this regard started from the presupposition that the necessary changes in regulation for facilitating e-commerce are capable to determine indirect changes in many aspects of financial rules and taxation. While analyzing the regulation of online trade, the various measures undertaken recently in respect to European sources of law and their implications for national legal framework opened additional directions of investigation. 
  • 122
  • 25 Feb 2022
Topic Review
Climate Change and Fisheries Regulation
Climate change and its effect on marine environment, especially ocean warming, acidification and sea level rise, impacts fisheries in different ways. However, fisheries and climate change are regulated by different international management mechanisms, which makes the current fisheries management system face challenges.
  • 110
  • 03 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Sustainability of AI and Sustainability Claims
The potential of artificial intelligence (AI) and its manifold applications have fueled the discussion around how AI can be used to facilitate sustainable objectives. However, the technical, ethical, and legal literature on how AI, including its design, training, implementation, and use can be sustainable, is rather limited. At the same time, consumers incrementally pay more attention to sustainability information, whereas businesses are increasingly engaging in greenwashing practices, especially in relation to digital products and services, raising concerns about the efficiency of the existing consumer protection framework in this regard. The objective of this paper is to contribute to the discussion toward sustainable AI from a legal and consumer protection standpoint while focusing on the environmental and societal pillar of sustainability. After analyzing the multidisciplinary literature available on the topic of the environmentally sustainable AI lifecycle, as well as the latest EU policies and initiatives regarding consumer protection and sustainability, we will examine whether the current consumer protection framework is sufficient to promote sharing and substantiation of sustainability information in B2C contracts involving AI products and services. Moreover, we will assess whether AI-related AI initiatives can promote a sustainable AI development. Finally, we will propose a set of recommendations capable of encouraging a sustainable and environmentally-conscious AI lifecycle while enhancing information transparency among stakeholders, aligning the various EU policies and initiatives, and ultimately empowering consumers.
  • 94
  • 26 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Sui Generis Geographical Indications for Apparel and Footwear
In a global context marked by deterritorialization, free circulation of people and products, and appraisal of cultural differences, the researchers ground the proposition that extending sui generis Geographical indications (GIs) to fashion items would be a favorable solution for both communicating the genius loci and promoting sustainable practices. This process would go hand in hand with the creation of shorter and more responsible supply chains, deeply connecting the wearer and the local fields and pushing for individual or community agency. Building on the lessons learnt from the food industry, though, in the fashion sector, the path could be set in the reverse direction, with GIs being granted to companies not only because of the local scope of production but also considering the abidance by specific sustainability criteria.
  • 80
  • 27 May 2022
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