Log in/Sign up
Arts & Humanities
Biology & Life Sciences
Business & Economics
Chemistry & Materials Science
Computer Science & Mathematics
Environmental & Earth Sciences
Medicine & Pharmacology
Public Health & Healthcare
Digitainability and Smart Education
Smart education, with its multidimensional interdisciplinarity, allows the promotion of a learning process that is simultaneously efficient and effective, enhancing digitainability and, consequently, more proactive attitudes in shaping a Sustainable Digital Society.
27 Sep 2022
With the rapid development of society and technology, personal adaptability is becoming more and more important. Learning how to adapt to a changing world is becoming one of the necessary conditions for success. Career adaptability can help individuals to smoothly adapt to changes when coping with their career roles, and maintain their ability to balance their career roles, which will affect their important psychological resources for career development and achieve more meaning in life. In recent years, career adaptability has gradually attracted the attention of researchers. Therefore, in order to explore the main factors, such as research focus, the main researchers, its evolution, and the important results of career adaptability in the last ten years, this study used the scientific knowledge mapping software CiteSpace as a research tool, and select related articles from the Web of Science between 2010 to 2020 under the theme of “career adaptability” for data analysis, which can help future researchers to understand current and future career adaptability research and control the research direction of career adaptability. The results of this research indicate that there are direct or indirect connections between different themes, such as the career adaptability scale, career construction, positive personalities, and so on, but few articles integrate multiple research topics. At the same time, the main researchers, research frontiers and network relationships were also obtained. Based on the above findings, the correlative main concept, theoretical structure, evolution, and research progress of career adaptability in the past ten years are discussed. Super and Knasel argued that career adaptability is a state of readiness which is required to cope with tasks that can be predicted by current or future job roles and to adapt to unpredictable work or changes in the work environment (Super & Knasel, 1981). Savickas modified it to be the individual’s state of readiness for predictable career tasks, the career roles involved, and career problems that are unpredictable in career changes or career situations, which is also a quality that allows for change without much difficulty to conform to the new environment (Savivkas, 1997). Later, Savickas made a more concise definition and supplement to the concept that was the state of preparation and resources needed to respond to current and anticipated career development tasks, including the attitudes, abilities, and behaviors individuals need to match them with work that suits them, which are psychological resources for managing career change, new tasks, and job trauma (Savickas, 2005; Savickas, 2002).
27 Aug 2020
Life skills are defined as “abilities for adaptive and supportive behaviors that enable individuals to deal effectively with the demands and challenges of everyday life”. These skills can help individuals in leading a meaningful life. Hence, it is of importance to consider the role schools play in equipping students with these life skills. Schools bear the responsibility of choosing the right strategies to develop these skills. One of these strategies is project-based. Project-based learning (PBL) is a teaching strategy that offers students the chance to develop real life skills. This occurs through engaging students in the cycle of PBL that requires the use of a variety of skills from the students to solve problems.
22 Jun 2021
Parental involvement is seen as an important strategy for the advancement of the quality of education. The ultimate objective of this is to expand the academic and social capacities of students, especially those of disadvantaged backgrounds determined by ethnic minority origin and low socio-economic status. In this contribution, various forms of both parental and school-initiated involvement will be described. In addition, results of studies into the effectiveness of parental involvement will be presented.
15 Nov 2021
Validity and Reliability of the Research Instrument
Questionnaire is one of the most widely used tools to collect data in especially social science research. The main objective of questionnaire in research is to obtain relevant information in most reliable and valid manner. Thus the accuracy and consistency of survey/questionnaire forms a significant aspect of research methodology which are known as validity and reliability. Often new researchers are confused with selection and conducting of proper validity type to test their research instrument (questionnaire/survey).
15 Mar 2022
Grade retention is a strategy for the remediation of learning or developmental delays. Students who cannot keep up with their peers or do not meet a predefined level repeat the same grade once again and by doing so have an extra year to get at the level that is needed to successfully manage the next grade. There are considerable doubts as regards the usefulness and effectiveness of retaining grades. Studies conclude that in the short term retaining grades may have a positive effect on academic achievement, but that this gain disappears in the longer term.
30 Oct 2020
Higher Education and COVID-19
The COVID-19 pandemic had profound consequences on the educational dimension, with the temporary closure of educational institutions, as well as the impediment of face-to-face classes. These challenging conditions can be a critical moment of opportunity to reshape education in higher education, with the implementation, development, and diffusion of digital technologies.
20 Oct 2020
Role-Playing Games may be defined as a system for creating stories based on rules. They allow a group of players and a game director (also known as Game Master or Narrator) to participate and interact using their imagination to determine what could happen. There are different kinds of Role-Playing Games (RPGs) that relate to video games and online video games. The original RPGs, sometimes called tabletop RPGs or pen-and-paper RPGs, were the starting point of their digital relatives, and used mainly speech and imagination; however, technology may be used in some cases for communication. RPGs that are played by writing posts in forums or sending emails are called Play by Post (PbP). Some RPGs even require live interaction, similar to theater representations; these are called Live Action Role Play (LARP).
16 Dec 2021
Islamic Primary Schools in the Netherlands
Because of the constitutional Freedom of education in the Netherlands, everyone can establish a school and is entitled to full state funding. There now are 52 primary Islamic schools, with around 12,500 pupils mostly of Turkish and Moroccan descent. They focus on developing an Islamic religious identity, and high educational quality and pupil achievement. Because most pupils come from socioeconomic disadvantaged backgrounds, the schools receive nearly twice as much budget than schools with a predominantly non-disadvantaged population. The existence of Islamic schools has always been controversial. Their output in terms of academic achievement is relatively high, however. In an absolute sense they achieve below the “average” Dutch school, but when compared with schools with the same disadvantaged pupil population, they achieve better. Lately, there have been problems with secondary Islamic schools in the Netherlands. As a result, several politicians propose to abolish the Freedom of education act.
03 Nov 2020
Compensatory Carry-Over Action Model (CCAM)
The Compensatory Carry-Over Action Model (CCAM) is innovative as most behavioral theories only model single activity. The CCAM, however, models different single activities—such as physical activity and nutrition —and how they change as a result of one another. Such lifestyle activities are assumed to be formed by higher-level goals, which can drive activity volitionally or unconsciously, and are rather unspecific. They become specific because of activities that are subjectively seen as leading to this goal. Each activity must be intended, pursued, and controlled. Specific resources ensure that individuals have the chance to translate their intentions into activity and that they resist distractors. Compensation and transfer (also called carry-over) operate between the different activities. If people devote all of their energy to one domain and believe that no resources remain for the other activity, compensation can help to attain goals. It is also possible that an individual successfully performs one activity, and existing or developing resources may be transferred to another activity.
16 Dec 2020
Featured Entry Collections
Encyclopedia of Social Sciences
Expected Online Date: Dec 2022
Encyclopedia of ZEMCH Research and Development
Expected Online Date: Dec 2022
Encyclopedia of Engineering
Expected Online Date: Dec 2022
Encyclopedia of Piezoelectrics
Expected Online Date: Dec 2022
Terms and Conditions
Browse our user manual, common Q&A, author guidelines, etc.
Rate your experience
Let us know your experience and what we could improve.
Report an error
Is something wrong? Please let us know!
Other feedback you would like to report.
Did you find what you were looking for?
Do you agree to share your valuable feedback publicly on
Yes, I agree. Encyclopedia can post it.
No, I do not agree. I would not like to post my testimonial.
Upload a screenshot
(Max file size 2MB)
Thank you for your feedback!
You input will help us improve Encyclopedia.