Topic Review
World Jewish Congress Lawsuit Against Swiss Banks
The World Jewish Congress lawsuit against Swiss banks was launched in 1995 to retrieve deposits made into Swiss banks by victims of Nazi persecution during and prior to World War II. Initiated as WJC negotiations with both the Government of Switzerland and its banks over burdensome proof-of-ownership requirements for accounts, strong support from United States politicians and leaked documents from a bank guard pressured a settlement in 1998 in a U.S. court for multiple classes of people affected by government and banking practices. As of 2015, US$1.28 billion has been disbursed for 457,100 claimants.
  • 789
  • 08 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Workplace Sexual Harassment and Productivity Loss Prevention
Workplace sexual harassment (WSH) is a severe problem affecting millions of women’s wholeness and well-being worldwide. WSH refers to unwanted sexual advances, unwelcome requests for sexual favors, verbal or physical conduct or gestures of a sexual nature, or any other sexual behavior that may be offensive, humiliating, or intimidating in the work environment.
  • 245
  • 04 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Workplace Relationships
Workplace relationships are unique interpersonal relationships with important implications for the individuals in those relationships, and the organizations in which the relationships exist and develop. Workplace relationships directly affect a worker's ability and drive to succeed. These connections are multifaceted, can exist in and out of the organization, and be both positive and negative. One such detriment lies in the nonexistence of workplace relationships, which can lead to feelings of loneliness. Workplace relationships are not limited to friendships, but also include superior-subordinate, romantic, and family relationships.
  • 503
  • 23 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Work–Life Balance on the Quality of Life
Employees often have to cope with unprecedented challenges in their working and living conditions—caused by organizational and socioeconomic changes and/or crises—by showing resourcefulness and adaptability. Especially working women who bear a heavier burden strive harder to achieve balance between their work and family lives, and build resilience to maintain their quality of life. It is, therefore, important to develop a better understanding of the mechanisms women employ to strengthen their resilience by combining different roles without compromising their quality of life. 
  • 182
  • 26 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities
The Woodcock–Johnson Tests of Cognitive Abilities is a set of intelligence tests first developed in 1977 by Richard Woodcock and Mary E. Bonner Johnson (although Johnson's contribution is disputed). It was revised in 1989, again in 2001, and most recently in 2014; this last version is commonly referred to as the WJ IV. They may be administered to children from age two right up to the oldest adults (with norms utilizing individuals in their 90s). The previous edition WJ III was praised for covering "a wide variety of cognitive skills".
  • 1.3K
  • 20 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Women’s Leadership and COVID-19 Pandemic
International and national crises often highlight behavioral patterns in the labor market that illustrate women’s courage and adaptability in challenging times. The COVID-19 pandemic and resulting changes in the workplace due to social distancing, remote work, and tele-communications protocols showcased women’s power of authenticity and accessibility (interpersonal and personalized experiences) to engage with their constituents effectively.
  • 192
  • 05 Dec 2023
Topic Review
Women’s Empowerment, Food Security, Nutrition Transition in Africa
Despite mounting recognition of the essential role of women’s empowerment in household dietary and nutrition changes, the diversity of culture across African countries presents ambiguity as to whether its impact is experienced homogeneously across the continent. With their prominent role in the kitchen and household food preparation, women offer an important avenue for addressing several challenges in relation to the food subsector. Empowering them with the necessary capabilities can lead to changes in various aspects of households’ dietary patterns. Studies of Africa indicate that empowering women through physical capital, economic agency, and sociocultural factors can have a positive influence on either food security, diet improvements or the enrichment of diet-related health. 
  • 385
  • 09 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Women's Studies
Women's studies is an academic field that draws on feminist and interdisciplinary methods in order to place women’s lives and experiences at the center of study, while examining social and cultural constructs of gender; systems of privilege and oppression; and the relationships between power and gender as they intersect with other identities and social locations such as race, sexual orientation, socio-economic class, and disability. Popular theories within the field of women's studies include feminist theory, standpoint theory, intersectionality, multiculturalism, transnational feminism, social justice, affect studies, agency, biopolitics, materialisms, and embodiment. Research practices and methodologies associated with women's studies include ethnography, autoethnography, focus groups, surveys, community-based research, discourse analysis, and reading practices associated with critical theory, post-structuralism, and queer theory. The field researches and critiques societal norms of gender, race, class, sexuality, and other social inequalities. Women's studies is closely related to the fields of gender studies, feminist studies, and sexuality studies, and more broadly related to the fields of cultural studies, ethnic studies, and African-American studies. Women's studies courses are offered in over seven hundred institutions in the United States, and globally in more than forty countries.
  • 930
  • 05 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Women Sustainable Entrepreneurship
Sustainability is a concept that tries to represent the balance between three different factors: the environment, equity and the economy. This concept is based on the fact that resources are finite and that they should be conserved and utilized wisely with a definition that prioritizes a long-term approach.
  • 1.1K
  • 18 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Women of the Wall
Women of the Wall (Hebrew: נשות הכותל, Neshot HaKotel) is a multi-denominational feminist organization based in Israel whose goal is to secure the rights of women to pray at the Western Wall, also called the Kotel, in a fashion that includes singing, reading aloud from the Torah and wearing religious garments (tallit, tefillin and kippah). Pew Research Center has identified Israel as one of the countries that place "high" restrictions on religion, and there have been limits placed on non-Orthodox streams of Judaism. One of those restrictions is that the Rabbi of the Western Wall has enforced gender segregation and limitations on religious garb worn by women. When the "Women of the Wall" hold monthly prayer services for women on Rosh Hodesh, they observe gender segregation so that Orthodox members may fully participate. But their use of religious garb, singing and reading from a Torah have upset many members of the Orthodox Jewish community, sparking protests and arrests. In May 2013 a judge ruled that a 2003 Israeli Supreme Court ruling prohibiting women from carrying a Torah or wearing prayer shawls had been misinterpreted and that Women of the Wall prayer gatherings at the wall should not be deemed illegal. In January 2016, the Israeli Cabinet approved a plan to designate a new space at the Kotel that would be available for egalitarian prayer and which would not be controlled by the Rabbinate. Women of the Wall welcomed the decision, but the plan faced opposition from other factions, including some ultra-Orthodox members of Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu's governing coalition, who threatened to withdraw over the government's plan to create non-Orthodox prayer space at the Western Wall in deference to the Women of the Wall. In January 2017, the Israeli High Court ruled that if the government of Israel could not find "good cause" to prohibit women reading from the Torah in prayer services at the Kotel within 30 days, women could do so; they also ruled that the Israeli government could no longer argue that the Robinson's Arch area of the plaza is access to the Kotel. The petition for women to read from the Torah at the Kotel had been brought by a group that split off from the Women of the Wall, calling itself the "Original Women of the Wall". In June 2017, it was announced that the plan approved in January 2016 had been suspended. According to Ronit Kampf, the group's struggle has been "the most covered women's issue in the history of the Israeli media."
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  • 14 Oct 2022
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