Topic Review
Legality of Polygamy
The legal status of polygamy varies widely around the world. Polygyny is legal in 58 out of nearly 200 sovereign states, the vast majority of them being Muslim-majority countries in Africa and Asia. Polyandry is illegal in virtually every country. A number of countries permit polygyny among Muslims in their communities. Some countries that permit polygyny have restrictions, such as requiring the first wife to give her consent. In countries that ban polygamy, the offence is commonly called bigamy, though the penalty varies between jurisdictions. In some countries where polygamy is illegal, the prohibition is not enforced.
  • 34.9K
  • 06 Dec 2022
Topic Review
Drinking the Kool-Aid
"Drinking the Kool-Aid" is an expression used to refer to a person who believes in a possibly doomed or dangerous idea because of perceived potential high rewards. The phrase often carries a negative connotation. It can also be used ironically or humorously to refer to accepting an idea or changing a preference due to popularity, peer pressure, or persuasion. In recent years it has evolved further to mean extreme dedication to a cause or purpose, so extreme that one would "drink the Kool-Aid" and die for the cause. The phrase originates from events in Jonestown, Guyana, on November 18, 1978, in which over 900 members of the Peoples Temple movement died. The movement's leader, Jim Jones, called a mass meeting at the Jonestown pavilion after the murder of U.S. Congressman Leo Ryan and others in nearby Port Kaituma. Jones proposed "revolutionary suicide" by way of ingesting a powdered drink mix lethally laced with cyanide and other drugs which had been prepared by his aides.
  • 26.2K
  • 23 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Socialization
Despite the plethora of definitions of socialization, this process of formation of the social human is a key concept by allowing the interconnection between society and culture.
  • 26.0K
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Theories on Addiction of Smartphone and Internet
Excessive use of smartphones has been associated with a number of negative consequences for individuals. Some of these consequences relate to many symptoms of behavioral addiction. Addiction is defined as a pleasure-inducing behavior that through repeated exposure gradually leads to loss of control and further negative consequences.
  • 26.0K
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Neoliberalism (International Relations)
In the study of international relations, neoliberalism (or liberal institutionalism) is a school of thought which holds that international cooperation between states is feasible and sustainable, and that such cooperation can reduce conflict and competition. Neoliberalism is a revised version of liberalism. Alongside neorealism, neoliberalism is one of the two most influential contemporary approaches to international relations; the two perspectives have dominated international relations theory since the 1990s. Neoliberalism shares many assumptions as neorealism (namely, that the international system is anarchic, states are the main actors, and states rationally pursue their self-interest), but draws different conclusions from those assumptions. In contrast to neorealist scholarship which is skeptical of prospects for sustainable cooperation, neoliberalism argues that cooperation is feasible and sustainable. Neoliberals highlight the role of international institutions and regimes in facilitating cooperation between states. The main reason why international organizations facilitate cooperation is that they provide information, which reduces collective action problems among states in providing public goods and enforcing compliance. Robert Keohane's 1984 book After Hegemony used insights from the new institutional economics to argue that the international system could remain stable in the absence of a hegemon, thus rebutting hegemonic stability theory. Keohane showed that international cooperation could be sustained through repeated interactions, transparency, and monitoring.
  • 25.5K
  • 10 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Cousin Marriage
A cousin marriage is a marriage where the partners are cousins (i.e. people with common grandparents or people who share other fairly recent ancestors). The practice was common in earlier times, and continues to be common in some societies today, though in some jurisdictions such marriages are prohibited. Worldwide, more than 10% of marriages are between first or second cousins. Cousin marriage is an important topic in anthropology and alliance theory. In some cultures and communities, cousin marriages are considered ideal and are actively encouraged and expected; in others, they are seen as incestuous and are subject to social stigma and taboo. Cousin marriage was historically practised by indigenous cultures in Australia, North America, South America, and Polynesia. Different religions have ranged from prohibiting up to sixth cousins from marrying (some forms of Hinduism and Catholicism) to freely allowing first cousin marriage (Protestantism, Islam and Judaism). In some jurisdictions, cousin marriage is legally prohibited, for example in China , Taiwan, North Korea, South Korea , the Philippines and 24 of the 50 United States. The laws of many jurisdictions set out the degree of consanguinity prohibited among sexual relations and marriage parties. Supporters of cousin marriage where it is banned may view the prohibition as discrimination, while opponents may appeal to moral or other arguments. Opinions vary widely as to the merits of the practice. Children of first-cousin marriages have an increased risk of autosomal recessive genetic disorders, and this risk is higher in populations that are already highly ethnically similar. Children of more distantly related cousins have less risk of these disorders, though still higher than the average population. A study indicated that between 1800 and 1965 in Iceland, more children and grandchildren were produced from marriages between third or fourth cousins (people with common great-great- or great-great-great-grandparents) than from other degrees of separation.
  • 24.1K
  • 13 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Sociology
Sociology is a science with specificities that can offer a more rigorous knowledge of social reality. But what is sociology? There is a wide variety of definitions and it is not easy to define them directly. It is an extremely ambitious and broad theme of which we will make a brief presentation based on Ferreira & Serpa (2017), Serpa & Ferreira (2018), and Serpa & Ferreira (2019).
  • 23.7K
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Inequalities in Sociology
The digital is increasingly present in everyday life, with a deep and growing social, political and economic impact, and society 5.0 is one of the possible attempts for this materialisation. However, the digital is not experienced by everyone in the same way, so this digitalisation of societies will have varied implications for individuals, namely the transformation of differences in access and digital literacy into new inequalities. Sociology – as the scientific knowledge of the reciprocal influence of interactions between individuals and the influence of the social context – will have a heuristic potential for understanding this reality. Sociology will, thus, take on, concurrently with other sciences, a relevant role concerning the subsequent development of a more balanced society in this digital dimension, increasingly important in defining the social position of the individual, and, thus, will add to a development that materialises the potential of this digital society.
  • 22.7K
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
List of Long Marriages
This is a list of long marriages. It includes people who have been married for at least 80 years. The length of marriage is based on the reported death of either member, or reported divorce, or the most recent report that both members of the couple were still living.
  • 21.7K
  • 07 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Pro-Environmental Behavior
Pro-environmental behavior, also known as green-, sustainable-, or environmentally-friendly (eco-friendly) behavior, is defined as behaviors in which individuals take protective actions toward the environment [8]. 
  • 19.5K
  • 26 Oct 2020
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