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Guo, H.; , . Biodegradable Film Materials for Packaging. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/23044 (accessed on 17 June 2024).
Guo H,  . Biodegradable Film Materials for Packaging. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/23044. Accessed June 17, 2024.
Guo, Hongge, . "Biodegradable Film Materials for Packaging" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/23044 (accessed June 17, 2024).
Guo, H., & , . (2022, May 18). Biodegradable Film Materials for Packaging. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/23044
Guo, Hongge and . "Biodegradable Film Materials for Packaging." Encyclopedia. Web. 18 May, 2022.
Biodegradable Film Materials for Packaging
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In today’s world, the problem of “white pollution” is becoming more and more serious, and many countries have paid special attention to this problem, and it has become one of the most important tasks to reduce polymer waste and to protect the environment. Due to the degradability, safety, economy and practicality of biodegradable packaging film materials, biodegradable packaging film materials have become a major trend in the packaging industry to replace traditional packaging film materials, provided that the packaging performance requirements are met. Degraded plastics are plastics that have been subjected to defined environmental conditions for a period of time and contain one or more steps that result in significant changes in the chemical structure of the material resulting in loss of certain properties (such as integrity, molecular mass, structure or mechanical strength) and/or fragmentation.

degradable packaging film materials degradation mechanism modified

1. Introduction

Plastic was once hailed as one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century, because of its light weight, good processing performance, low price and many other advantages that make the global plastic industry has been rapid development [1]. According to statistics, the total global production of plastic products exceeds 300 million tons [2][3][4], with 13 million tons entering the water [5]. However, only 6–26% of plastic products are recycled, which means that at least 74% of plastic waste ends up in landfills or enters the environment every year [3][6], of which about 46% comes from the packaging industry, especially food packaging films, which are largely non-recyclable [7]. Since most plastics are now made from non-biodegradable materials, it often takes one to two hundred years to degrade these plastic products [8][9][10][11][12][13].
Plastic is the most commonly used packaging material [14][15], especially packaging film material. However, the packaging industry generates about 141 million tons of plastic waste each year [16], and most of the packaging film materials are composed of non-degradable materials, which obviously leads to many environmental problems, such as “white pollution” [17][18][19]. General purpose plastic packaging films such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) [20][21] film materials undergo a long period of aging under the current common waste disposal method of sanitary landfill conditions. Under the action of abiotic factors (such as solar radiation, high temperature, wave impact, gravel abrasion) or biotic factors (such as ingestion, colonization, degradation) [22][23], physical or chemical property changes, molecular weight reduction and molecular weight distribution changes, but its decomposition is not complete, the majority of decomposition into microplastics (particle size < 5 mm) or nanosized-plastics (particle size < 0.1 μm) [24][25]. At present, microplastics have been widely detected in oceans [24][26], sediments [27], rivers [28][29][30], lakes [20], atmosphere [31][32][33], soil [34][35] and organisms [36], disrupting the normal metabolism and energy balance in organisms, thus affecting the normal growth and reproduction of organisms and causing potential harm to human health [37][38].
To solve these problems, it has become important for biodegradable packaging film materials to replace traditional packaging film materials [39][40]. However, biodegradable plastics currently account for less than 1% of total plastics production [41]. Compared with traditional packaging film materials, biodegradable packaging film materials are more expensive to produce and have poor mechanical properties and their barrier properties, which are the main reasons for their limited applications [42].

2. Degradation Mechanism of Degradable Packaging Film Materials

Degraded plastics are plastics that have been subjected to defined environmental conditions for a period of time and contain one or more steps that result in significant changes in the chemical structure of the material resulting in loss of certain properties (such as integrity, molecular mass, structure or mechanical strength) and/or fragmentation [43][44]. As shown in Table 1, the degradation degree can be divided into complete and incomplete degradation, and different degradation mechanisms can be divided into photodegradation, water degradation, thermal oxidative degradation and biodegradation [45].

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