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Laxogenin C
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Laxogenin C (LGC) is a natural spirostanol deriving from plant hormone which has shown anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and growth-regulating activities.

plant growth regulator Laxogenin C Metabolism
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Subjects: Allergy
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View Times: 300
Revisions: 3 times (View History)
Update Date: 12 Apr 2022
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    1. Introduction

    Laxogenin C is a class of natural product steroid glycosides, which is derived from laxogenin. It has the same active functional group as the plant hormones brassinosteroids and therefore shares similarities in their physiological activity with brassinosteroids. Its chemical name is laxogenin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl- (1→4)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl- (1→6) ]-β-D-glucopyranose. Its chemical formula is C44H70O18 and its structure is shown in Figure 1.

    Figure 1. Chemical structures of LGC.
     

    2. History

    Laxogenin C was first isolated from the rhizomes of Smilax sieboldii by Kubo et al [1]. At the same time, it was also isolated from the rhizomes of Smilax lebrunii by Jia and Ju [2]. It was also isolated from the bulbs of Allium chinense by Jiang et al [3] and the stem of Smilax scobinicaulis by Zhang[4]. Studies have shown that it has some bioactivities on both animals and plants. It has anti-inflammatory activity and antinociceptive effect. It regulates plant growth in a dose-dependent manner, promoting seed germination, seedling growth and increasing crop and fruit yield at low concentrations and inhibiting them at high concentrations. Spraying laxogenin C also alleviates the harm of drought stress on seedlings.

    Kim et al.[5] found that showed laxogenin C had anti-inflammatory activity to inhibit ear edema.

    Suh et al.[6] found that GABAB, and non-NMDA receptors located at the supraspinal level may play important roles in the production of antinociception induced by laxogenin C administered supraspinally. Furthermore, laxogenin C administered supraspinally may produce its antinociception by activating descending noradrenergic- but not opioidergic- and serotonergic-neurons.

    Guo et al. [7]found that laxogenin C significantly promoted seed germination and seedling growth of rape.

    Wang et al. [8]found that laxogenin C promoted seed germination and seedling growth and increased biological yield in maize. Laxogenin C could increase plant height, leaf width, leaf length, and biological yield of maize seedlings to different degrees.

    Ma et al. [9] found that laxogenin C improved seed germination and seedling growth of watermelon. The concentration of laxogenin C varies, resulting in different sites of action, the indicators of improvement are also different. For example, different concentrations of Laxogenin C improve the weight of the roots or overground parts, respectively.

    Ma et al.[10] found that moderate concentrations of laxogenin C had the positive effect on seed germination and seedling growth of radish, black bean and etchling. Besides, laxogenin C also increased their overground biological yield and the content of Vitamin C effectively. It showed that the suitable concentration of laxogenin C had a certain application value in the production of sprout vegetable.

    Zhou and Zhang [11] found that spraying laxogenin C at the elongation-flowering stage coordinated yield components of winter wheat and increased the photosynthetic rate, consequently improved the winter wheat grain yield and quality.

    Ding et al. [12]found that spraying exogenous laxogenin C alleviated the harm of drought stress on seedling by accumulating osmotic substances, increasing activity of antioxidant enzymes, removing peroxide, and enhancing photosynthetic ability.

    References

    1. Tamotsu Nikaido; Taichi Ohmoto; Satoshi Kubo; Yoshihiro Mimaki; Yutaka Sashida; Steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Smilax sieboldii. Phytochemistry 1992, 31, 2445-2450, 10.1016/0031-9422(92)83296-b.
    2. Jia Zhong-Jian; Ju Yong; Steroidal saponins from Smilax lebrunii. Phytochemistry 1992, 31, 3173-3175, 10.1016/0031-9422(92)83469-f.
    3. Yong Jiang; Nai-Li Wang; Xin-Sheng Yao; Susumu Kitanaka; Steroidal saponins from the bulbs of Allium chinense. Advances in Plant Glycosides, Chemistry and Biology, Proceedings of the International Symposium in Plant Glycosides 1999, 6, 212-219, 10.1016/s0928-3420(99)80029-9.
    4. Zhang Cunli; Wang Dongmei; Zhu wei; Zhang Hongli; Study on chemical constituents from stem of Smilax scobinicaulis. Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal 2006, 41, 1540-1542, .
    5. Sung Yong Kim; Kun Ho Son; Hyeun Wook Chang; Sam Sik Kang; Hyun Pyo Kim; Inhibition of mouse ear edema by steroidal and triterpenoid saponins. Archives of Pharmacal Research 1999, 22, 313-316, 10.1007/bf02976370.
    6. Hong Suh; Dong Song; Keun Son; Mi Woo; Jae Do; Young Choi; Keun Lee; Yung Kim; Antinociceptive Effect of Smilaxin B Administered Intracerebroventricularly in the Mouse. Planta Medica 1996, 62, 141-145, 10.1055/s-2006-957837.
    7. Guo Jie; Guan Hua; Zhang Cunli; Gong Yuehua; Effects of Laxogenin and Smilscobinoside C on Seed Germination and Seedlings Growth of Rape. Northern Horticulture 2010, 24, 12~14, 10.11937/bfyy.201024004.
    8. Wang weiyan; Zhang cunli; Effects of Laxogenin and Smilscobinoside C on Seed Germination and Seedlings Growth of Maize. Seed 2011, 30, 15-17, :10.16590/j.cnki.1001-4705.2011.12.059.
    9. Ma li; Luo Yongjun; Wang weiyan; Zhang cunli; Effects of Laxogenin C on Seed Germination and Seedlings Growth of Watermelon. Northern Horticulture 2011, 35, 22-24, 10.11937/bfyy.2011024006.
    10. Ma Huiling; Ye Zhanyang; Shang Xiaojiao; Shen Wei; Li Weini; Effect of Laxogenin C on Seed Germination and Seedlings Growth of Radish,Black Bean and Etchling. Northern Horticulture 2014, 05, 15~20, .
    11. Zhou Meng; Zhang Cunli; The effects of Laxogenin-C on photosynthetic characteristics of the flag leaf and yield and quality of winter wheat grain. Agricultural Science Journal of Yanbian University 2017, 39, 53-59, 10.13478/j.cnki.jasyu.2017.02.009.
    12. Ding Danyang; Zhang Yijie; Wang Kaiyue; Liu Zhihong; Lu Yutong; Shao Huifang; Physiological Achine of Laxogenin C on Increasing the Ressistance to Drought Stress of Tobacco Seedlings. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 2018, 20, 36-44, 10.13304/j.nykjdb.2017.0843.
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    Subjects: Allergy
    Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register :
    View Times: 300
    Revisions: 3 times (View History)
    Update Date: 12 Apr 2022
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      Zhang, Q. Laxogenin C. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/21032 (accessed on 06 February 2023).
      Zhang Q. Laxogenin C. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/21032. Accessed February 06, 2023.
      Zhang, Qiang. "Laxogenin C," Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/21032 (accessed February 06, 2023).
      Zhang, Q. (2022, March 25). Laxogenin C. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/21032
      Zhang, Qiang. ''Laxogenin C.'' Encyclopedia. Web. 25 March, 2022.
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