Submitted Successfully!
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry related to this topic through the link below:
Check Note
Ver. Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 + 2414 word(s) 2414 2021-10-14 05:39:14 |
2 format correction Meta information modification 2414 2021-10-22 04:06:05 |
Electrospun Medicated Nanofibers for Wound Healing
Upload a video

The electrospun nanofiber membrane has a unique structure and biological function similar to the extracellular matrix (ECM), and is considered an advanced wound dressing. They have significant potential in encapsulating and delivering active substances that promote wound healing. 

  • wound dressing
  • electrospinning
  • nanostructure
  • nanocomposite
Contributor :
View Times: 100
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Time: 22 Oct 2021

1. Introduction

Skin is the largest important organ of the human body and the first barrier against external pathogens [1]. However, external mechanical forces, surgical operations, burns, chemical injuries, and ulcers from certain chronic diseases can cause varying degrees of damage to the skin [2]. Wound healing is a complicated and dynamic process of tissue regeneration, mainly composed of four stages: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling [3]. Although the skin can undergo a certain degree of spontaneous repair, bacterial infection has always been the main reason hindering wound healing. For an infected wound, it will not only disrupt the normal healing process, but also cause the wound tissue to be deformed, causing great pain to the patient [4].
Wound dressings play an essential role in wound healing management. They protect the wound from external risk factors, and speed up the healing process [5]. On the basis of the mechanism of wound healing, an ideal wound dressing ought to have the accompanying attributes: (1) absorb excess exudate; (2) protect the wound from microbial infection; (3) maintain a moist healing environment at the wound site; (4) facilitate gas exchange; (5) non-toxic, biocompatible, and degradable; (6) does not adhere to the wound, easy to replace and remove; (7) promote angiogenesis and tissue regeneration [6][7][8]. Different wound needs should be integrated when choosing wound dressings. So far, the common dressings on the market mainly include film [9], foam [10], sponge [11], hydrogel [12][13], and nanofiber membrane [14][15]. Among these materials, the unique structure of the small pore size and high porosity of the nanofiber membrane can protect the wound from pathogen infection and ensure the free transportation of gas and liquid molecules. At the same time, a large amount of research has been carried out, combining the adjustable characteristics of physical and mechanical properties to make it stand out among biomaterials [16][17].
So far, methods such as drawing [18], self-assembly [19], phase separation [20] and template synthesis [21] have been used to prepare nanofibers. However, they have disadvantages such as high cost, time-consuming and low efficiency. Therefore, simple and practical electrospinning technology is widely used to manufacture fibers with diameters in the nanometer or micrometer range [22]. Electrospun nanofiber membranes represent a new class of materials. Because of their high surface-to-volume ratio, high microporosity and versatility, they can be used in various biomedical applications [23], such as tissue engineering scaffolds [24][25], drug delivery [26][27][28] and wound dressings [29][30]. Nanofiber wound dressings prepared by electrospinning technology have many advantages. First, the structure and biological function are similar to the natural extracellular matrix (ECM), which provides an ideal microenvironment for cell adhesion, proliferation, migration and differentiation [31][32]. Secondly, the polymer matrix used for electrospinning can simultaneously combine the biocompatibility of natural polymers and the reliable mechanical strength of synthetic polymers [33]. Furthermore, the nanofiber membrane’s wide surface area and porous structure can be effectively loaded with various biologically active ingredients, including antibacterial drugs, inorganic nanoparticles, vitamins, growth factors and Chinese herbal extracts. The rate and time of drug release are controlled by adjusting the fiber structure and morphological size, thereby promoting effective healing of the wound site [34]. Therefore, electrospun nanofibers show great potential in the preparation of advanced bioactive wound dressings.

2. Wound and Wound Dressing

2.1. Wounds Classification

Wounds are defined as skin deformities or tissue discontinuities brought about by physical or thermal injury, or underlying ailments [35]. Given the nature and duration of the healing process, wounds are usually divided into acute and chronic types [36]. Acute wounds mainly include mechanical injuries, chemical injuries, surface burns and surgical wounds, etc. The healing process follows the normal wound healing cycle [37][38][39]. However, chronic wounds refer to those cannot go through an orderly healing process and have been open for more than one month. The causes of chronic wounds vary, and are mainly related to certain specific diseases (such as diabetes). They are notorious for the terrible incidence of ulcers, and they are susceptible to infection by inflammatory bacteria that affect wound repair [40][41]. Globally, chronic wounds impose a heavy burden on patients and healthcare systems [42].

2.2. Types of Wound Dressing

In 1962, Dr. Jorge Winter of the University of London put forward the “moist healing environment theory” first, and related studies confirmed that a moist environment will speed up the wound healing process [43]. In recent years, the theory of moist healing has received extensive consideration. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pointed out in an industry guide issued in August 2000 that one of the standard methods of wound treatment is to maintain a moist environment on the wound surface [44]. With the in-depth study of wound healing, the types of wound treatment and dressings are constantly improving and developing [45]. Wound dressings are classified into traditional wound dressing, modern wound dressing and bioactive wound dressing according to their functional properties and wound origin. Table 1 classifies and summarizes wound dressings based on their functions.
Table 1. Types of wound dressing.







wound dressing

Gauze, lint, bandage

Easy to use and economical

1. Dry, unable to maintain a moist healing environment

2. Adhering to the wound site is difficult to remove


Modern wound dressing


1. Transparent, can observe wound changes

2. Form a bacterial barrier

3. Gas and water vapor permeability

1. Absorptive capacity is not strong

2. Obstruct the regeneration of epithelial tissue



1. High water absorption performance to maintain the moist environment of the wound

2. Change the dressing without damage

1. Weak adhesion

2. Completely opaque



1. Stimulate tissue autolysis and debridement

2. The closed structure blocks the invasion of external bacteria

1. Poor degradability

2. Produce a special smell



1. Ability to replenish water and maintain a humid environment

2. Comfortable and easy to replace

1. No adhesion, low mechanical strength

2. High water content, limited absorption capacity, not suitable for wounds with high exudate



1. Non-toxic, fast hemostasis

2. Good air permeability

3. Biodegradation

Not suitable for dry wounds


Bioactive wound dressing

Drug-loaded dressing, antibacterial dressing

1. Good biocompatibility

2. Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial

3. Promote the growth of cells and tissues

Induce immune response


3. Electrospinning Technology

Electrospinning technology, as a superfine fiber preparation technology, has experienced hundreds of years of development [53]. The electrostatic spinning device is mainly composed of four parts: a high-voltage generator, a fluid driver, a spinneret and a collection device [54]. In the electrospinning process, the initial electrospinning fluid gradually changes its morphology after the voltage is applied, until it reaches the critical voltage shape into a Taylor cone. When the liquid jet stretches over a certain distance, it enters the bending and whiplash stage. With the solvent volatilization, the jet is stretched to micrometers or even tens of nanometers, finally solidified and deposited on the collector to form nanofiber [55][56]. On the basis of this principle, the electrospinning process can be adjusted by system parameters (polymer type, molecular weight, viscosity, conductivity of the solution, surface tension), process parameters (voltage, flow rate, receiving distance) and environmental parameters (humidity, temperature) to change the morphology and size of nanofibers [57][58]. As a simple, top-down one-step preparation method, electrospinning technology produces nanofibers with small pore size, high porosity and a structure similar to ECM. Therefore, it has received extensive attention from researchers and used to prepare functionalized nanofibers for applications in biomedicine and other fields [59][60][61]. At the same time, the electrospinning technology is continuously upgraded and optimized. As shown in Figure 1, it has gradually developed into single fluid electrospinning (blend electrospinning and emulsion electrospinning), double-fluid electrospinning (coaxial electrospinning and side-by-side electrospinning) and multifluid electrospinning (triaxial electrospinning and other multifluid electrospinning).
Figure 1. Process classification of electrospinning technology (adapted from [62], with permission from MDPI, 2021).

4. Electrospun Nanofibers in Wound Dressing

Nanofibers prepared by electrospinning technology show excellent properties in promoting wound healing. Their microstructure is highly fitted to the human body ECM structure, which is conducive to cell growth, proliferation and adhesion [31][63]. At the same time, the high permeability and absorption rate can absorb the exudate formed on the wound surface and maintain a moist healing environment. In addition, the large surface area benefits loading and transporting bioactive ingredients such as drugs and growth factors [34][64]. Therefore, electrospun nanofiber materials are considered to be the ideal choice for wound dressings.

4.1. Polymer in Electrospun Wound Dressing

At present, there are hundreds of polymers that can be successfully used to prepare drug carriers by electrospinning. In related research on electrospinning wound dressings, both natural and synthetic polymers have been widely used. Figure 2 simply classifies and summarizes the common polymers in electrospun wound dressings.
Figure 2. Common polymers used in electrospun wound dressings.

4.2. Bioactive Ingredients in Electrospun Wound Dressing

Another important advantage of electrospinning to prepare nanofiber wound dressings is that it can load a variety of biologically active ingredients to prepare functionalized products. At present, to improve the antibacterial properties of dressings, commonly used active substances include antibiotic drugs (ciprofloxacin (CIP), curcumin, metronidazole, tetracycline, gentamicin and diclofenac), inorganic nanoparticles (nanosilver particles (AgNP), ZnO, titanium dioxide (TiO2), cerium oxide (CeO2)), natural substances (honey, essential oils, chitosan) and growth factors [65][66][67][68].
Augustine et al. [69] reported the development of a new type of nCeO2, which contains electrospun poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy valerate) (PHBV) membrane. In vivo wound healing studies in diabetic rats confirmed that PHBV membranes mixed with 1% nCeO2 showed perfect cell compatibility, and could be used as promising biomaterials to treat diabetic wound healing (Figure 3A). Yang et al. [70] used the side-by-side electrospinning process to prepare Janus nanofibers containing CIP and AgNP as the polymer matrix, and studied their effects on wound healing. The antibacterial effect in the process provides a new idea for the preparation of new antibacterial wound dressings. Jafari et al. [71] prepared a bilayer nanofiber scaffold based on PCL and gelatin. The top layer contains amoxicillin, and the bottom layer contains n-ZnO to accelerate wound healing. In vitro release test showed the sustained release of amoxicillin. Analysis of wound healing in rats showed that the scaffold improved the shrinkage rate of the wound, enhanced the deposition of collagen and reduced the formation of scars. All results and findings indicate that prefabricated stents can be a promising alternative method for treating skin injuries. Figure 3B shows the characterization analysis of the prepared bilayer nanofiber scaffold. Table 2 summarizes the common polymers and active substances in electrospinning wound dressings.
Figure 3. (A) PHBV/nCeO2 nanofiber membrane in cell adhesion, migration and wound healing research [69]; (B) the electrospun antibacterial bilayer nanofiber scaffold is used to promote the various characterization analysis of the full-thickness skin defect healing in mice [71].
Table 2. The latest literature on polymer materials and bioactive ingredients used in electrospinning to promote skin wound healing.

Scaffold Material

Additional Polymer

Bioactive Ingredients


Electrospinning Technique








Has strong antibacterial activity and is suitable for the management and treatment of diabetic foot ulcer




Acetic acid, ethanol


Thermal stability, wettability characteristics and antibacterial activity




Silver sulfadiazine

Chloroform, ethanol


The antibacterial performance showed inhibitory activity against Bacillus (9.71 ± 1.15 mm) and E. coli (12.46 ± 1.31 mm), promoted cell proliferation and adhesion



n-ZnO, aloe vera

Chloroform, ethanol


The developed nanofibers revealed good cell compatibility




Lidocaine hydrochloride, mupirocin



Have the functions of promoting hemostasis, antibacterial, and drug release.



Acacia extract

Acetic acid


A continuous release of natural acacia extract from nanofibers occurred during 24 h







The fabricated membrane shows anti-inflammatory properties without cytotoxicity




Formic acid, dichloromethane


Accelerate wound healing in diabetic mice





Acetic acid


Not only is it non-toxic to fibroblasts, but it also has a certain effect on cell attachment and morphology



Cardamom extract

Distilled water


Have good biocompatibility and antibacterial properties





Ethanol, acetic acid, acetone


Janus fiber has good bactericidal activity




DCM, DMF, HFIP, ethanol


Antibacterial studies on wounds show that they can effectively inhibit the growth of microorganisms.




Aloe vera

Acetic acid


Have good antibacterial properties and biocompatibility




Ethanol, acetic acid


Shows antibacterial, anti-oxidant and wound healing capabilities



Oregano oil



Good biocompatibility and antibacterial activity



Urtica dioica, n-ZnO



The hybrid scaffold shows high antibacterial activity and cell viability



Clove essential oil

Glacial acetic acid


Antibacterial activity





Double-distilled water, acetic acid


Proper tensile strength and elongation, excellent biocompatibility and antibacterial activity




Acetic acid


Good physical and chemical properties, biocompatibility and antibacterial properties





Acetic acid


Antibacterial effects against S. aureus




Acetic acid


Wound closure was significantly improved


HFP: Hexafluoropropylene, EC: Ethylcellulose, PLA: Polylactic acid, HFIP: 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol, DCM: Dichloromethane, PEO: Polyethene oxide, CNC: Cellulose nanocrystals, DMF: N,N-dimethylformamide.

4.3. In Situ Electrospinning in Wound Dressing

Compared with ordinary electrospinning, in situ electrospinning is more convenient and comfortable to use, and can better cover wounds. Simultaneously, dressings can be customized according to patient needs [92]. Qin et al. [93] used a portable electrospinning device to prepare electrospun Zein/Clove essential oil nanofiber. In vitro experiments have observed good biocompatibility and antibacterial effects. In the mouse wound model, it can be observed that the prepared Zein/CEO nanofiber membrane promotes wound healing. Figure 4A shows the diagram of its preparation. Yue et al. [94] used ethanol-soluble polyurethane (EPU) and Fluorinated polyurethane (FPU) as polymer carriers and used a customized electrospinning device to prepare thymol-loaded nanofiber membranes (Figure 4B(a)). The results indicate that the membrane has good breathable, waterproof performance and excellent antibacterial activity (Figure 4B(b)), providing a promising strategy for developing portable electrospinning devices.
Figure 4. (A) In situ electrospinning process [93]; (B) [94] (a) schematic diagram of portable electrospinning device and preparation of EPU/FPU/thymol nanofiber; (b) schematic diagram of the breathable, waterproof and antibacterial functions of EPU/FPU/Thymol nanofiber.

4.4. Application of Electrospinning Technology in Other Fields

In recent years, the advantages of electrospinning have attracted more and more attention. With the continuous research of related scholars, the application of electrospinning nanofibers has become more and more extensive. In addition to playing a role in the field of biomedicine (drug delivery [95][96][97], tissue engineering [98] and wound dressings), it also plays a pivotal position in environmental protection (air filtration, water treatment), energy and chemical industries (light-emitting device, solar cell and supercapacitor) and other fields [99][100]. Fiber materials with unique structures and characteristics arranged by electrospinning have been generally utilized in different fields (Figure 5). Combining the structural advantages of the materials with the properties of the materials will be the focus of future research.
Figure 5. Structure, performance and application of electrospun nanofiber.


  1. Nosrati, H.; Aramideh Khouy, R.; Nosrati, A.; Khodaei, M.; Banitalebi-Dehkordi, M.; Ashrafi-Dehkordi, K.; Sanami, S.; Alizadeh, Z. Nanocomposite scaffolds for accelerating chronic wound healing by enhancing angiogenesis. J. Nanobiotechnology 2021, 19, 1–22.
  2. Fatehi, P.; Abbasi, M. Medicinal plants used in wound dressings made of electrospun nanofibers. J. Tissue Eng. Regen. Med. 2020, 14, 1527–1548.
  3. El Ayadi, A.; Jay, J.W.; Prasai, A. Current approaches targeting the wound healing phases to attenuate fibrosis and scarring. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1105.
  4. Chen, M.; Tian, J.; Liu, Y.; Cao, H.; Li, R.; Wang, J.; Wu, J.; Zhang, Q. Dynamic covalent constructed self-healing hydrogel for sequential delivery of antibacterial agent and growth factor in wound healing. Chem. Eng. J. 2019, 373, 413–424.
  5. Chen, K.; Wang, F.; Liu, S.; Wu, X.; Xu, L.; Zhang, D. In situ reduction of silver nanoparticles by sodium alginate to obtain silver-loaded composite wound dressing with enhanced mechanical and antimicrobial property. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 148, 501–509.
  6. Fahimirad, S.; Ajalloueian, F. Naturally-derived electrospun wound dressings for target delivery of bioactive agents. Int. J. Pharm. 2019, 566, 307–328.
  7. Kanikireddy, V.; Varaprasad, K.; Jayaramudu, T.; Karthikeyan, C.; Sadiku, R. Carboxymethyl cellulose-based materials for infection control and wound healing: A review. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 164, 963–975.
  8. Das, A.; Uppaluri, R.; Das, C. Feasibility of poly-vinyl alcohol/starch/glycerol/citric acid composite films for wound dressing applications. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 131, 998–1007.
  9. Weng, W.; Chi, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhang, C.; Shi, K.; Zhao, Y. Multifunctional composite inverse opal film with multiactives for wound healing. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2021, 13, 4567–4573.
  10. Bužarovska, A.; Dinescu, S.; Lazar, A.D.; Serban, M.; Pircalabioru, G.G.; Costache, M.; Gualandi, C.; Avérous, L. Nanocomposite foams based on flexible biobased thermoplastic polyurethane and ZnO nanoparticles as potential wound dressing materials. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2019, 104, 109893.
  11. Cui, H.; Liu, M.; Yu, W.; Cao, Y.; Zhou, H.; Yin, J.; Liu, H.; Que, S.; Wang, J.; Huang, C.; et al. Copper peroxide-loaded gelatin sponges for wound dressings with antimicrobial and accelerating healing properties. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2021, 13, 26800–26807.
  12. Zhao, X.; Pei, D.; Yang, Y.; Xu, K.; Yu, J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Q.; He, G.; Zhang, Y.; Li, A.; et al. Green tea derivative driven smart hydrogels with desired functions for chronic diabetic wound treatment. Adv. Funct. Mater. 2021, 31, 2009442.
  13. Pan, X.; Kong, D.; Wang, W.; Liu, W.; Ou-Yang, W.; Zhang, C.; Wang, Q.; Huang, P.; Zhang, C.; Li, Y. Synthetic polymeric antibacterial hydrogel for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus-infected wound healing: Nanoantimicrobial self-assembly, drug- and cytokine-free strategy. ACS Nano 2020, 14, 12905–12917.
  14. Chen, L.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, H.; Sun, X.; Liu, D.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.; Cheng, L.; Santos, H.A.; Cui, W. Programmable immune activating electrospun fibers for skin regeneration. Bioact. Mater. 2021, 6, 3218–3230.
  15. Guo, X.; Liu, Y.; Bera, H.; Zhang, H.; Chen, Y.; Cun, D.; Foderà, V.; Yang, M. α-Lactalbumin-based nanofiber dressings improve burn wound healing and reduce scarring. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2020, 12, 45702–45713.
  16. Toriello, M.; Afsari, M.; Shon, H.K.; Tijing, L.D. Progress on the fabrication and application of electrospun nanofiber composites. Membranes 2020, 10, 1–35.
  17. Akhmetova, A.; Heinz, A. Electrospinning proteins for wound healing purposes: Opportunities and challenges. Pharmaceutics 2021, 13, 1–22.
  18. Jao, D.; Beachley, V.Z. Continuous dual-track fabrication of polymer micro-/nanofibers based on direct drawing. ACS Macro Lett. 2019, 8, 588–595.
  19. Shin, S.; Menk, F.; Kim, Y.; Lim, J.; Char, K.; Zentel, R.; Choi, T.L. Living light-induced crystallization-driven self-assembly for rapid preparation of semiconducting nanofibers. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 6088–6094.
  20. Qin, W.; Li, J.; Tu, J.; Yang, H.; Chen, Q.; Liu, H. Fabrication of porous chitosan membranes composed of nanofibers by low temperature thermally induced phase separation, and their adsorption behavior for Cu2+. Carbohydr. Polym. 2017, 178, 338–346.
  21. Kamin, Z.; Abdulrahim, N.; Misson, M.; Chiam, C.K.; Sarbatly, R.; Krishnaiah, D.; Bono, A. Use of melt blown polypropylene nanofiber templates to obtain homogenous pore channels in glycidyl methacrylate/ethyl dimethacrylate-based monoliths. Chem. Eng. Commun. 2021, 208, 661–672.
  22. Bazmandeh, A.Z.; Mirzaei, E.; Fadaie, M.; Shirian, S.; Ghasemi, Y. Dual spinneret electrospun nanofibrous/gel structure of chitosan-hyaluronic acid as a wound dressing: In-vitro and in-vivo studies. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 162, 359–373.
  23. Sabra, S.; Ragab, D.M.; Agwa, M.M.; Rohani, S. Recent advances in electrospun nanofibers for some biomedical applications. Eur. J. Pharm. Sci. 2020, 144, 105224.
  24. Abazari, M.F.; Nasiri, N.; Nejati, F.; Kohandani, M.; Hajati-Birgani, N.; Sadeghi, S.; Piri, P.; Soleimanifar, F.; Rezaei-Tavirani, M.; Mansouri, V. Acceleration of osteogenic differentiation by sustained release of BMP2 in PLLA/graphene oxide nanofibrous scaffold. Polym. Adv. Technol. 2021, 32, 272–281.
  25. Mozaffari, A.; Gashti, M.P.; Mirjalili, M.; Parsania, M. Argon and argon-oxygen plasma surface modification of gelatin nanofibers for tissue engineering applications. Membranes 2021, 11, 1–13.
  26. Luraghi, A.; Peri, F.; Moroni, L. Electrospinning for drug delivery applications: A review. J. Control. Release 2021, 334, 463–484.
  27. Li, Z.; Wen, W.; Chen, X.; Zhu, L.; Cheng, G.; Liao, Z.; Huang, H.; Ming, L. Release characteristics of an essential oil component encapsulated with cyclodextrin shell matrices. Curr. Drug Deliv. 2021, 18, 487–499.
  28. Yu, D.G. Preface-bettering drug delivery knowledge from pharmaceutical techniques and excipients. Curr. Drug Deliv. 2021, 18, 2–3.
  29. Schuhladen, K.; Raghu, S.N.V.; Liverani, L.; Neščáková, Z.; Boccaccini, A.R. Production of a novel poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-methylcellulose electrospun wound dressing by incorporating bioactive glass and Manuka honey. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. Part B 2021, 109, 180–192.
  30. Bootdee, K.; Nithitanakul, M. Poly (d, l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanospheres within composite poly (vinyl alcohol)/aloe vera electrospun nanofiber as a novel wound dressing for controlled release of drug. Int. J. Polym. Mater. Polym. Biomater. 2021, 70, 223–230.
  31. Lan, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Tian, F.; Miao, X.; Wang, H.; Tang, Y. Coaxial electrospun PVA/PCL nanofibers with dual release of tea polyphenols and ε-poly(L-lysine) as antioxidant and antibacterial wound dressing materials. Int. J. Pharm. 2021, 601, 120525.
  32. Bonferoni, M.C.; Rossi, S.; Sandri, G.; Caramella, C.; Del Fante, C.; Perotti, C.; Miele, D.; Vigani, B.; Ferrari, F. Bioactive medications for the delivery of platelet derivatives to skin wounds. Curr. Drug Deliv. 2019, 16, 472–483.
  33. Keshvardoostchokami, M.; Majidi, S.S.; Huo, P.; Ramachandran, R.; Chen, M.; Liu, B. Electrospun nanofibers of natural and synthetic polymers as artificial extracellular matrix for tissue engineering. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1–23.
  34. Augustine, R.; Rehman, S.R.U.; Ahmed, R.; Zahid, A.A.; Sharifi, M.; Falahati, M.; Hasan, A. Electrospun chitosan membranes containing bioactive and therapeutic agents for enhanced wound healing. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 156, 153–170.
  35. Ather, S.; Harding, K.G.; Tate, S.J. Wound management and dressings. In Advanced Textiles for Wound Care, 2nd ed.; The Textile Institute Book Series; Woodhead Publishing: Cambridge, UK, 2019; pp. 1–22.
  36. Wang, W.; Lu, K.J.; Yu, C.H.; Huang, Q.L.; Du, Y.Z. Nano-drug delivery systems in wound treatment and skin regeneration. J. Nanobiotechnology 2019, 17, 1–15.
  37. Iacob, A.T.; Drăgan, M.; Ionescu, O.M.; Profire, L.; Ficai, A.; Andronescu, E.; Confederat, L.G.; Lupascu, D. An overview of biopolymeric electrospun nanofibers based on polysaccharides for wound healing management. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 1–49.
  38. Tottoli, E.M.; Dorati, R.; Genta, I.; Chiesa, E.; Pisani, S.; Conti, B. Skin wound healing process and new emerging technologies for skin wound care and regeneration. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 1–30.
  39. Wang, Y.; Feng, Q.; Li, Z.; Bai, X.; Wu, Y.; Liu, Y. Evaluating the effect of integra seeded with adipose tissue-derived stem cells or fibroblasts in wound healing. Curr. Drug Deliv. 2020, 17, 629–635.
  40. Smet, S.; Probst, S.; Holloway, S.; Fourie, A.; Beele, H.; Beeckman, D. The measurement properties of assessment tools for chronic wounds: A systematic review. Int. J. Nurs. Stud. 2021, 121, 103998.
  41. Sen, C.K. Human wounds and its burden: An updated compendium of estimates. Adv. Wound Care 2019, 8, 39–48.
  42. Homaeigohar, S.; Boccaccini, A.R. Antibacterial biohybrid nanofibers for wound dressings. Acta Biomater. 2020, 107, 25–49.
  43. Eaglstein, W.H. Moist wound healing with occlusive dressings: A clinical focus. Dermatol. Surg. 2001, 27, 175–182.
  44. Driver, V.R.; Gould, L.J.; Dotson, P.; Gibbons, G.W.; Li, W.W.; Ennis, W.J.; Kirsner, R.S.; Eaglstein, W.H.; Bolton, L.L.; Carter, M.J. Identification and content validation of wound therapy clinical endpoints relevant to clinical practice and patient values for FDA approval. Part 1. Survey of the wound care community. Wound Repair Regen. 2017, 25, 454–465.
  45. Mouro, C.; Gomes, A.P.; Ahonen, M.; Fangueiro, R.; Gouveia, I.C. Chelidonium majus 1. Incorporated emulsion electrospun PCL/PVA_PEC nanofibrous meshes for antibacterial wound dressing applications. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1785.
  46. Montaser, A.S.; Rehan, M.; EI-Senousy, W.M.; Zaghloul, S. Designing strategy for coating cotton gauze fabrics and its application in wound healing. Carbohydr. Polym. 2020, 244, 116479.
  47. Dhivya, S.; Padma, V.V.; Santhini, E. Wound dressings—A review. Biomedicine 2015, 5, 24–28.
  48. Chaganti, P.; Gordon, I.; Chao, J.H.; Zehtabchi, S. A systematic review of foam dressings for partial thickness burns. Am. J. Emerg. Med. 2019, 37, 1184–1190.
  49. Rezvani Ghomi, E.; Khalili, S.; Nouri Khorasani, S.; Esmaeely Neisiany, R.; Ramakrishna, S. Wound dressings: Current advances and future directions. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 1–12.
  50. Cascone, S.; Lamberti, G. Hydrogel-based commercial products for biomedical applications: A review. Int. J. Pharm. 2020, 573, 118803.
  51. Ahmad, A.; Mubarak, N.M.; Jannat, F.T.; Ashfaq, T.; Santulli, C.; Rizwan, M.; Najda, A.; Bin-Jumah, M.; Abdel-Daim, M.M.; Hussain, S.; et al. A critical review on the synthesis of natural sodium alginate based composite materials: An innovative biological polymer for biomedical delivery applications. Processes 2021, 9, 1–27.
  52. Tang, Y.; Lan, X.; Liang, C.; Zhong, Z.; Xie, R.; Zhou, Y.; Miao, X.; Wang, H.; Wang, W. Honey loaded alginate/PVA nanofibrous membrane as potential bioactive wound dressing. Carbohydr. Polym. 2019, 219, 113–120.
  53. Wang, C.; Wang, J.; Zeng, L.; Qiao, Z.; Liu, X.; Liu, H.; Zhang, J.; Ding, J. Fabrication of electrospun polymer nanofibers with diverse morphologies. Molecules 2019, 24, 834.
  54. Aidana, Y.; Wang, Y.; Li, J.; Chang, S.; Wang, K.; Yu, D.-G. Fast dissolution electrospun medicated nanofibers for effective delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs. Curr. Drug Deliv. 2021, 18.
  55. Nauman, S.; Lubineau, G.; Alharbi, H.F. Post processing strategies for the enhancement of mechanical properties of enms (Electrospun nanofibrous membranes): A review. Membranes 2021, 11, 1–38.
  56. Ma, H.; Burger, C.; Chu, B.; Hsiao, B.S. Electrospun nanofibers for environmental protection. Handb. Fibrous Mater. 2020, 773–806.
  57. Zhao, K.; Kang, S.X.; Yang, Y.Y.; Yu, D.G. Electrospun functional nanofiber membrane for antibiotic removal in water: Review. Polymers 2021, 13, 1–33.
  58. Wang, M.; Yu, D.-G.; Li, X.; Williams, G.R. The development and bio-applications of multifluid electrospinning. Mater. Highlights 2020, 1, 1–13.
  59. Wang, Y.; Tian, L.; Zhu, T.; Mei, J.; Chen, Z.; Yu, D.G. Electrospun aspirin/Eudragit/lipid hybrid nanofibers for colon-targeted delivery using an energy-saving process. Chem. Res. Chin. Univ. 2021, 37, 443–449.
  60. Li, Y.; Zhu, J.; Cheng, H.; Li, G.; Cho, H.; Jiang, M.; Gao, Q.; Zhang, X. Developments of advanced electrospinning techniques: A critical review. Adv. Mater. Technol. 2021, 2100410.
  61. Xin, R.; Ma, H.; Venkateswaran, S.; Hsiao, B.S. Electrospun nanofibrous adsorption membranes for wasterwater treatment: Mechanical strength enhancement. Chem. Res. Chinese Univ. 2021, 37, 355–365.
  62. Zare, M.; Dziemidowicz, K.; Williams, G.R.; Ramakrishna, S. Encapsulation of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical active ingredients using electrospinning processes. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1968.
  63. Wang, F.; Hu, S.; Jia, Q.; Zhang, L. Advances in electrospinning of natural biomaterials for wound dressing. J. Nanomater. 2020, 2020, 8719859.
  64. Memic, A.; Abudula, T.; Mohammed, H.S.; Joshi Navare, K.; Colombani, T.; Bencherif, S.A. Latest progress in electrospun nanofibers for wound healing applications. ACS Appl. Bio Mater. 2019, 2, 952–969.
  65. Li, H.; Chen, X.; Lu, W.; Wang, J.; Xu, Y.; Guo, Y. Application of electrospinning in antibacterial field. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1–29.
  66. Keirouz, A.; Chung, M.; Kwon, J.; Fortunato, G.; Radacsi, N. 2D and 3D electrospinning technologies for the fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds for skin tissue engineering: A review. Wiley Interdiscip. Rev. Nanomed. Nanobiotechnol. 2020, 12, 1–32.
  67. Naskar, A.; Kim, K.S. Recent advances in nanomaterial-based wound-healing therapeutics. Pharmaceutics 2020, 12, 499.
  68. Abdalla, S.S.I.; Katas, H.; Azmi, F.; Busra, M.F.M. Antibacterial and anti-biofilm biosynthesised silver and gold nanoparticles for medical applications: Mechanism of action, toxicity and current status. Curr. Drug Deliv. 2020, 17, 88–100.
  69. Augustine, R.; Hasan, A.; Patan, N.K.; Dalvi, Y.B.; Varghese, R.; Antony, A.; Unni, R.N.; Sandhyarani, N.; Moustafa, A.E.A. Cerium oxide nanoparticle incorporated electrospun poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) membranes for diabetic wound healing applications. ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng. 2020, 6, 58–70.
  70. Yang, J.; Wang, K.; Yu, D.G.; Yang, Y.; Bligh, S.W.A.; Williams, G.R. Electrospun Janus nanofibers loaded with a drug and inorganic nanoparticles as an effective antibacterial wound dressing. Mater. Sci. Eng. C 2020, 111, 110805.
  71. Jafari, A.; Amirsadeghi, A.; Hassanajili, S.; Azarpira, N. Bioactive antibacterial bilayer PCL/gelatin nanofibrous scaffold promotes full - thickness wound healing. Int. J. Pharm. 2020, 583, 119413.
  72. Samadian, H.; Zamiri, S.; Ehterami, A.; Farzamfar, S.; Vaez, A.; Khastar, H.; Alam, M.; Ai, A.; Derakhshankhah, H.; Allahyari, Z.; et al. Electrospun cellulose acetate/gelatin nanofibrous wound dressing containing berberine for acetate/gelatin nanofibrous wound dressing containing berberine diabetic foot ulcer healing: In vitro and in vivo studies. Sci. Rep. 2020, 10, 1–12.
  73. López-Calderón, H.D.; Avilés-Arnaut, H.; Galán Wong, L.J.; Almaguer - Cantú, V.; Laguna-Camacho, J.R.; Calderón-Ramón, C.; Escalante- Martínez, J.E.; Arévalo-Niño, K. Electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone-gelatin and cellulose acetate bi-Layer scaffold loaded with gentamicin as possible wound dressing. Polymers 2020, 12, 2311.
  74. Ahmadian, S.; Ghorbani, M.; Mahmoodzadeh, F. Silver sulfadiazine-loaded electrospun ethyl cellulose/polylactic acid/collagen nanofibrous mats with antibacterial properties for wound healing. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 162, 1555–1565.
  75. Ghorbani, M.; Nezhad-Mokhtari, P.; Ramazani, S. Aloe vera-loaded nanofibrous scaffold based on zein/polycaprolactone/collagen for wound healing. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 153, 921–930.
  76. Yang, S.; Li, X.; Liu, P.; Zhang, M.; Wang, C.; Zhang, B. Multifunctional chitosan/polycaprolactone nanofiber scaffolds with varied dual-drug release for wound-healing applications. ACS Biomater. Sci. Eng. 2020, 6, 4666–4676.
  77. Ribeiro, A.S.; Costa, S.M.; Ferreira, D.P.; Calhelha, R.C.; Barros, L.; Stoiković, D.; Soković, M.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Fangueiro, R. Chitosan/nanocellulose electrospun fibers with enhanced antibacterial and antifungal activity for wound dressing applications. React. Funct. Polym. 2021, 159, 104808.
  78. Peng, Y.; Ma, Y.; Bao, Y.; Liu, Z.; Chen, L.; Dai, F.; Li, Z. Electrospun PLGA/SF/artemisinin composite nanofibrous membranes for wound dressing. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2021, 183, 68–78.
  79. Agarwal, Y.; Rajinikanth, P.S.; Ranjan, S.; Tiwari, U.; Balasubramnaiam, J.; Pandey, P.; Arya, D.K.; Anand, S.; Deepak, P. Curcumin loaded polycaprolactone-/polyvinyl alcohol-silk fibroin based electrospun nanofibrous mat for rapid healing of diabetic wound: An in-vitro and in-vivo studies. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2021, 176, 376–386.
  80. Najafiasl, M.; Osfouri, S.; Azin, R.; Zaeri, S. Alginate-based electrospun core/shell nanofibers containing dexpanthenol: A good candidate for wound dressing. J. Drug Deliv. Sci. Technol. 2020, 57, 101708.
  81. Najafi, S.; Gholipour- Kanani, A.; Eslahi, N.; Bahrami, S.H. Study on release of cardamom extract as an antibacterial agent from electrospun scaffold based on sodium alginate. J. Text. Inst. 2021, 112, 1482–1490.
  82. Hajikhani, M.; EMAM-Djomeh, Z.; Askari, G. Fabrication and characterization of mucoadhesive bioplastic patch via coaxial polylactic acid (PLA) based electrospun nanofibers with antimicrobial and wound healing application. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2021, 172, 143–153.
  83. Yin, J.; Xu, L. Batch preparation of electrospun polycaprolactone/chitosan/aloe vera blended nanofiber membranes for novel wound dressing. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 160, 352–363.
  84. Fahimirad, S.; Abtahi, H.; Satei, P.; Ghaznavi-Rad, E.; Moslehi, M.; Ganji, A. Wound healing performance of PCL/chitosan based electrospun nanofiber electrosprayed with curcumin loaded chitosan nanoparticles. Carbohydr. Polym. 2021, 259, 117640.
  85. El Fawal, G.; Hong, H.; Mo, X.; Wang, H. Fabrication of scaffold based on gelatin and polycaprolactone (PCL) for wound dressing application. J. Drug Deliv. Sci. Technol. 2021, 63, 102501.
  86. Ghiyasi, Y.; Salahi, E.; Esfahani, H. Synergy effect of Urtica dioica and ZnO NPs on microstructure, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity of electrospun PCL scaffold for wound dressing application. Mater. Today Commun. 2021, 26, 102163.
  87. Unalan, I.; Endlein, S.J.; Slavik, B.; Buettner, A.; Goldmann, W.H.; Detsch, R.; Boccaccini, A.R. Evaluation of electrospun poly(ε-caprolactone)/gelatin nanofiber mats containing clove essential oil for antibacterial wound dressing. Pharmaceutics 2019, 11, 570.
  88. Adeli, H.; Khorasani, M.T.; Parvazinia, M. Wound dressing based on electrospun PVA/chitosan/starch nanofibrous mats: Fabrication, antibacterial and cytocompatibility evaluation and in vitro healing assay. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 122, 238–254.
  89. Wang, S.; Yan, F.; Ren, P.; Li, Y.; Wu, Q.; Fang, X.; Chen, F.; Wang, C. Incorporation of metal-organic frameworks into electrospun chitosan/poly (vinyl alcohol) nanofibrous membrane with enhanced antibacterial activity for wound dressing application. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 158, 9–17.
  90. Kalalinia, F.; Taherzadeh, Z.; Jirofti, N.; Amiri, N.; Foroghinia, N.; Beheshti, M.; Bazzaz, B.S.F.; Hashemi, M.; Shahroodi, A.; Pishavar, E.; et al. Evaluation of wound healing efficiency of vancomycin-loaded electropunk chitosan/poly ethylene oxide nanofibers in full thickness wound model of rat. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2021, 177, 100–110.
  91. Amiri, N.; Ajami, S.; Shahroodi, A.; Jannatabadi, N.; Amiri Darban, S.; Fazly Bazzaz, B.S.; Pishavar, E.; Kalalinia, F.; Movaffagh, J. Teicoplanin-loaded chitosan-PEO nanofibers for local antibiotic delivery and wound healing. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 162, 645–656.
  92. Dong, W.H.; Liu, J.X.; Mou, X.J.; Liu, G.S.; Huang, X.W.; Yan, X.; Ning, X.; Ning, X.; Russell, S.J.; Long, Y.Z. Performance of polyvinyl pyrrolidone-isatis root antibacterial wound dressings produced in situ by handheld electrospinner. Colloids Surf. B 2020, 188, 110766.
  93. Qin, M.; Mou, X.J.; Dong, W.H.; Liu, J.X.; Liu, H.; Dai, Z.; Huang, X.W.; Wang, N.; Yan, X. In situ electrospinning wound healing films composed of zein and clove essential oil. Macromol. Mater. Eng. 2020, 305, 1–6.
  94. Yue, Y.; Gong, X.; Jiao, W.; Li, Y.; Yin, X.; Si, Y.; Yu, J.; Ding, B. In-situ electrospinning of thymol-loaded polyurethane fibrous membranes for waterproof, breathable, and antibacterial wound dressing application. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 2021, 592, 310–318.
  95. Xu, H.; Xu, X.; Li, S.; Song, W.-L.; Yu, D.-G.; Annie Bligh, S.W. The effects of drug heterogeneous distributions with core-sheath nanostructures on its sustained release profiles. Biomolecules 2021, 11, 1330.
  96. Xiaoxia, X.; Jing, S.; Dongbin, X.; Yonggang, T.; Jingke, Z.; Hulai, W. Realgar nanoparticles inhibit migration, invasion and metastasis in a mouse model of breast cancer by suppressing matrix metalloproteinases and angiogenesis. Curr. Drug Deliv. 2020, 17, 148–158.
  97. Eskiler, G.G.; Cecener, G.; Dikmen, G.; Egeli, U.; Tunca, B. Talazoparib loaded solid lipid nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy in vitro. Curr. Drug Deliv. 2019, 16, 511–529.
  98. Tan, G.Z.; Zhou, Y. Electrospinning of biomimetic fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering: A review. Int. J. Polym. Mater. Polym. Biomater. 2019, 69, 947–960.
  99. Islam, M.S.; Ang, B.C.; Andriyana, A.; Afifi, A.M. A review on fabrication of nanofibers via electrospinning and their applications. SN Appl. Sci. 2019, 1, 1–16.
  100. Yang, X.; Wang, J.; Guo, H.; Liu, L.; Xu, W.; Duan, G. Structural design toward functional materials by electrospinning: A review. E-Polymers 2020, 20, 682–712.
Contributor :
View Times: 100
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Time: 22 Oct 2021
Table of Contents


    Are you sure to Delete?

    Video Upload Options

    Do you have a full video?
    If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
    Yu, D. Electrospun Medicated Nanofibers for Wound Healing. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 03 July 2022).
    Yu D. Electrospun Medicated Nanofibers for Wound Healing. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed July 03, 2022.
    Yu, Deng-Guang. "Electrospun Medicated Nanofibers for Wound Healing," Encyclopedia, (accessed July 03, 2022).
    Yu, D. (2021, October 21). Electrospun Medicated Nanofibers for Wound Healing. In Encyclopedia.
    Yu, Deng-Guang. ''Electrospun Medicated Nanofibers for Wound Healing.'' Encyclopedia. Web. 21 October, 2021.