Summary

Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today, it provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Environmental studies are incorporating more of the social sciences in order to understand human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. This entry collection features information about design and technology for improving environmental quality in every aspect.

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Topic Review
Additive Manufacturing of Turbine Blades
Additive manufacturing is a technology of transforming a 3D prototype to a physical one directly by successive addition of the required material in a layer-by-layer manner. This technique helps to manufacture the turbine blade which is the revolution of green technology for high temperature engine parts.
  • 7
  • 07 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Biomass
Lignocellulosic biomass is the primary structural component of plant matter and is mostly inedible, generally referring to organic materials such as wood, grass, and agricultural crop residues. Biomass is a plentiful and carbon-neutral renewable energy source that may be used to create platform chemicals and fuels, especially considering that up to 75% of initial energy can be converted into biofuels.
  • 30
  • 03 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Activities of Daily Living and Subjective Cognitive Decline
This scoping review identifies subjective cognitive decline (SCD) indicators in ADLs and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in older adults with depressive symptoms using the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF). We searched Medline via Ebscohost, Pubmed, and PsycINFO for articles published on activities of daily living (ADL) indicators of SCD in older adults with depressive symptoms, published in English language journals from January 2011 to November 2021. Following the flow diagram, 2032 titles and abstracts were screened for relevance based on the Population, Concept, and Context inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eight articles provided evidence about the ADL indicators of SCD in older adults with depressive symptoms. The analysis yielded indicators based on low and high cognitively demanding tasks assessed on five different scales. Framed on the ICF categorization and coding system, the SCD-ADL indicators are personal care, mobility, and general tasks and demands; SCD-IADL indicators are mobility, general tasks and demands, learning and applying knowledge, domestic life, communication, major life areas, community, social, and civic life. Highly cognitively demanding activities present more difficulties for individuals with SCD, making IADLs a stronger predictor of SCD than ADLs.
  • 21
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Underwater Compressed Gas Energy Storage
Underwater compressed air energy storage was developed from its terrestrial counterpart. It has also evolved to underwater compressed natural gas and hydrogen energy storage in recent years. Underwater compressed air energy storage (UWCGES) is a promising energy storage technology for the marine environment and subsequently of recent significant interest attention.
  • 33
  • 30 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Biomass-to-Energy in Taiwan
In order to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from existing fossil fuel plants, biomass or lignocellulose-based waste was used directly as a solid fuel or as a supplement to fossil fuels. Although the traditional combustion of solid-type biomass in open fires or cook stoves could have an impact on human health and the environment, bioenergy for power generation (or electricity) and transport fuels (i.e., bioethanol and biodiesel) has been growing quickly in recent years, mainly because of the policy support and regulatory compliance. In order to reduce the dependence on imported energy supply as well as to mitigate GHG emissions, the Taiwanese government has been actively promoting renewable energy development to increase the indigenous energy supply for electricity and heat generation in the energy and industrial sectors.
  • 12
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Vaccines and Methane Emissions from Ruminants
Ruminants produce significant amounts of methane during their digestive process, making livestock one of the largest sources of anthropogenic greenhouse gasses. Several solutions have been proposed to address this problem, including inoculation of ruminants against microorganisms responsible for methane synthesis in the rumen. 
  • 34
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Membrane-Based Biogas and Biohydrogen Upgrading
Biogas and biohydrogen, due to their renewable nature and zero carbon footprint, are considered two of the gaseous biofuels that will replace conventional fossil fuels. Biogas from anaerobic digestion must be purified and converted into high-quality biomethane prior to use as a vehicle fuel or injection into natural gas networks.
  • 16
  • 28 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Metasurfaces for Sensing Applications
Photonic devices (sensors, in particular) require that an efficient dynamic control of light at nanoscale through field (electric or optical) variation using substitute low-loss materials. One such option may be plasmonic metasurfaces. Metasurfaces are arrays of optical antenna-like anisotropic structures (sub-wavelength size), which are designated to control the amplitude and phase of reflected, scattered and transmitted components of incident light radiation.
  • 20
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Revalorization of Microalgae Biomass for Synergistic Interaction
Microalgae and cyanobacteria are photosynthetic microorganisms’ sources of renewable biomass that can be used for bioplastic production. These microorganisms have high growth rates, and contrary to other feedstocks, such as land crops, they do not require arable land. In addition, they can be used as feedstock for bioplastic production while not competing with food sources (e.g., corn, wheat, and soy protein). 
  • 18
  • 29 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Food-Borne Chemical Carcinogens
Food-borne carcinogens span a range of chemical classes and can arise from natural or anthropogenic sources, as well as form endogenously.
  • 23
  • 28 Sep 2022
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