Summary

Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today, it provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Environmental studies are incorporating more of the social sciences in order to understand human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. This entry collection features information about design and technology for improving environmental quality in every aspect.

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Topic Review
Resistive-Based Gas Sensors Using Pristine Quantum Dots
Quantum dots (QDs) are used progressively in gas sensing applications because of their special electrical properties resulting from their extremely small size. QDs show a high sensing performance at generally low temperatures owing to their extremely small sizes, making them promising materials for the realization of reliable and high-output gas-sensing devices. This article discusses the gas sensing features of QD-based resistive sensors. Different types of pristine QD gas sensors for the detection of various gases are discussed in this article. 
  • 3
  • 25 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Ecological Succession Theory: exemplarily useful in new disciplines
In addition to states of space that are supposedly to be aspired to or maintained, which are often the subject of heated, acrimonious debates, there are temporary states of equilibrium in time that mirror the overarching cycle of life, have been the subject of research for a very long time, and are well documented and conceptually understood: namely, ecological succession. The knowledge and understanding of succession is irreplaceable to have a chance today to ground and resolve such mentioned debates about multiple claims and uses of spaces nowadays. For example, a main challenge of the current time is that large areas of land are needed for renewable energy production, and production sites should be designed to include biodiversity preservation. Decision-makers need guidance for reasonable coexistence. Succession theory can indeed provide substantial background and guidance.
  • 4
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Overheating Risk for Typical Dwellings in the UK
As people usually spend more than 90% of their lifetime indoors, comfortable indoor conditions are very important. In the UK, because the penetration rate of domestic air-conditioning is still as low as 3% [13], if natural ventilation is not achieved successfully indoors, it is challenging to cope with the resultant overheating. In addition, because it takes a long time to change indoor temperatures without using mechanical equipment, the occurrence of overheating in a residential building may cause the high indoor temperature to be maintained for an extended period of time, thereby adversely affecting the health of the occupants.
  • 11
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Evaluating Transition towards Circular Economy in European Union
The term circular economy (CE) has existed in the literature since the 1960s. In recent years, it gained significant notability in Europe with the introduction of the circular economy concept into the policy and strategy of the European Union (EU) in 2014 (COM/2014/0398) and the launch of the first Circular Economy Action Plan of the European Commission (COM/2015/0614 Final) in 2015 continued by a new Circular Economy Action Plan: For a cleaner and more competitive Europe (COM(2020)0098). One important step towards CE mainstreaming is the development of suitable indicators that would help measure the state of transition in both absolute and relative/comparative terms. Assessing countries’ performance in achieving the goals of the circular economy is a challenge due to the lack of a generally accepted methodology, the multitude of indicators, and the insufficient data. Countries may be compared in a narrow way, according to single indicators, but a more holistic synthetic assessment of countries is also needed to determine their position against each other.
  • 15
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Gynogenesis in Agricultural Crops
Gynogenesis is a viable methodology with promising results in recalcitrant species for the generation of doubled haploids, which uses unpollinated female gametophytes. This technique has been successful in loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thumb) Lindl.), citrus (Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck), spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.), cucurbits, red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and Gentiana ssp. crops, where it is feasible to apply this technique in breeding.
  • 8
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Arsenic Exposure via Contaminated Water and Food Sources
Arsenic poisoning constitutes a major threat to humans, causing various health problems. The presence of arsenic in ecosystems can originate from several natural or anthropogenic activities. Arsenic can be then gradually accumulated in different food sources, such as vegetables, rice and other crops, but also in seafood, etc., and in water sources (mainly in groundwater, but also to a lesser extent in surface water), potentially used as drinking-water supplies, provoking their contamination and therefore potential health problems to the consumers. 
  • 20
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Heterogeneous Driver Behaviour and Energy Consumption 
By 2020, over 100 countries had expanded electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (EV/PHEV) technologies, with global sales surpassing 7 million units. Governments are adopting cleaner vehicle technologies due to the proven environmental and health implications of internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), as evidenced by the recent COP26 meeting. 
  • 15
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Africa’s Agricultural TFP for Food Security
Population growth, food shortages, and low levels of human development have been longstanding issues confronting many African countries. Agricultural productivity remains a critical goal for mitigating these challenges and ensuring overall economic development. Total factor productivity (TFP) is a crucial metric for determining a sector’s overall growth. However, due to a lack of comprehensive assessments of the trends and determinants of TFP growth in African agriculture, there are disagreements. Within the context of inclusive human development, the impact of agricultural productivity is frequently misrepresented in the current literature. 
  • 22
  • 24 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Port-Related Shipping Gas Emissions
The global increase in shipping activity has contributed to the degradation of air quality, which particularly affects traffic-dense port areas. Due to the environmental and public health impacts of air quality in port cities, a number of inventories using varying methodologies have been conducted over the past two decades to manage gas emissions in specific areas. 
  • 14
  • 23 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Allelopathic potential of Lemna minor L.
Allelopathy is an interaction that releases allelochemicals (chemicals that act allelopathically) from plants into the environment that can limit or stimulate the development, reproduction, and survival of target organisms and alter the environment. Lemna minor L. contains chemicals that are allelopathic, such as phenolic acids. Chemical compounds contained in L. minor may have a significant impact on the development and the rate of multiplication and lead to stronger competition, which may enhance the allelopathic potential. Allelopathic potential may exist between L. minor and C. glomerata (L) Kütz. because they occupy a similar space in the aquatic ecosystem, have a similar preference for the amount of light, and compete for similar habitat resources. L. minor and C. glomerata can form dense populations on the water surface. Allelopathy can be seen as a wish to dominate one of the plants in the aquatic ecosystem. By creating a place for the development of extensive mats, an interspecific interaction is created and one of the species achieves competitive success. It is most effective as a result of the release of chemicals by macrophytes into the aquatic environment. Therefore, allelopathy plays a significant role in the formation, stabilization, and dynamics of the structure of plant communities.
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  • 24 Jun 2022
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