Environmental science emerged from the fields of natural history and medicine during the Enlightenment. Today, it provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems. Environmental studies are incorporating more of the social sciences in order to understand human relationships, perceptions and policies towards the environment. This entry collection features information about design and technology for improving environmental quality in every aspect.

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Topic Review
Modern Research on Heavy Metal Toxicity
This entry analyzes the causes and consequences of apoptosis and oxidative stress that occur in mitochondria and cells exposed to the toxic effects of different valent heavy metals (Ag+, Tl+, Hg2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Al3+, Ga3+, In3+, As3+, Sb3+, Cr6+, and U6+). Experiments with different cells and mitochondria showed that the heavy metals under review induced apoptosis characterized by caspase-3 and -9 activation, Bax and Bcl-2 expression, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. 
  • 20
  • 02 Oct 2023
Topic Review
Piezocatalysis is a technique that relies on the conversion of mechanical energy to trigger chemical reactions that can be utilized to catalyze the degradation of pollutants in water. By combining piezoelectric materials with photocatalytic materials, the built-in electric field generated by the piezoelectric effect promotes the separation and migration of photogenerated carriers, thereby enhancing the efficiency, selectivity, and stability of photocatalytic reactions.
  • 42
  • 29 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Bioactive Properties Reported from Marine Cyanobacteria
The ocean is a valuable natural resource that contains numerous biologically active compounds with various bioactivities. The marine environment comprises unexplored sources that can be utilized to isolate novel compounds with bioactive properties. Marine cyanobacteria are an excellent source of bioactive compounds that have applications in human health, biofuel, cosmetics, and bioremediation. These cyanobacteria exhibit bioactive properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-parasitic, anti-diabetic, anti-viral, antioxidant, anti-aging, and anti-obesity effects, making them promising candidates for drug development.
  • 26
  • 29 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Socio-Psychological Factors on Residents’ Willingness of Waste Handling
There was a statistically significant difference between low and high levels of awareness and perceived behavior control in Dammam City households’ willingness to sort waste and recycle; however, at the middle level, there was only a significant difference in perceived behavior control. Moreover, there was a statistically significant difference between high and middle levels in government facilitators regarding sorting and recycling willingness in Dammam City.
  • 23
  • 26 Sep 2023
Topic Review
The Drivers and Barriers of Green Ports
Ports play an increasingly significant role in fostering regional economic growth and international trade as a key hub of the transportation network. Ports now provide cities, regions, and nations with a vital strategic resource for taking part in global economic cooperation and competitiveness, in addition to providing space for transportation, logistics, and a way to connect with the outside world. Green ports are presented as an achievable solution to the energy issue and environmental degradation. A green port is a port that not only satisfies environmental criteria but also provides economic benefits. Green ports are an excellent strategy to reduce environmental pollution and ecological harm, as well as to maintain the ports’ water resources and natural environment.
  • 24
  • 26 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Social Vulnerability to Floods in Malaysia
Flood disasters, a natural hazard throughout human history, have caused significant damage to human safety and infrastructure. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, and access to healthcare crucially determine social vulnerability to adverse flood events. 
  • 34
  • 08 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Zeolite Types Used in Catalytic Methane Combustion
The emission of methane leads to the increase in the methane concentration in the atmosphere, which not only wastes resources but also intensifies the greenhouse effect and brings about serious environmental problems. Catalytic combustion can completely convert methane into carbon dioxide and water at low temperatures. However, the catalytic activities of the conventional supported palladium catalysts (e.g., Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/ZrO2) are easy to decrease or the two catalysts can even be deactivated under actual harsh reaction conditions (high temperatures, steam- and sulfur dioxide-containing atmospheres, etc.). Noble metal catalysts supported on zeolites with ordered pores and good thermal stability have attracted much attention. 
  • 27
  • 08 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Nitrogen and Phosphorus in the Northern Adriatic Sea
In the last two decades of the 21st century, a gradual decrease in nitrogen and phosphorus has been observed along the coastal area of the Northern Adriatic Sea. This depletion is attributed to reduced river flows. Studies conducted over the past four decades have indicated that the N/P ratio in the open sea is unlikely to undergo significant change. In fact, it tends to increase due to the unique characteristics of the Northern Adriatic Sea, which experiences slow water turnover and is influenced by strong winds. Additionally, the Northern Adriatic Sea receives a substantial amount of freshwater from rivers, accounting for about one-third of the total freshwater flow into the Mediterranean. These rivers carry nutrient loads that contribute to the high productivity and abundance of fish in this sea, making it one of the most productive areas in the Mediterranean. It has been observed that the cessation of anthropogenic phosphorus input, which has been regulated since the late 1980s with legislation limiting its use in detergents, has significantly affected the trophic chain.
  • 90
  • 01 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Quick Approaches for Assessing Ocular Toxicity with Zebrafish
The presence of contaminants in the environment has increased, and studies have demonstrated that these contaminants have the ability to penetrate the blood–retinal barrier and directly affect the visual systems of organisms. Zebrafish are recognized as an ideal model for human eye diseases due to their anatomical and functional similarities to the human eye, making them an efficient and versatile organism for studying ocular toxicity caused by environmental contaminants in the field of environmental toxicology. Meanwhile, zebrafish exhibit a diverse repertoire of visually mediated behaviors, and their visual system undergoes complex changes in behavioral responses when exposed to environmental contaminants, enabling rapid assessment of the ocular toxicity induced by such pollutants. 
  • 43
  • 30 Aug 2023
Topic Review
Freshwater Invertebrates in Biomonitoring
Invertebrates are excluded from ethical consideration in the procedures of environmental protection, which results in the killing of many more individuals during sampling than necessary. Biomonitoring is used as a routine method for environmental protection that results in the cruel death of even millions of aquatic animals annually.
  • 39
  • 29 Aug 2023
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