NMR has revolutionized structure determination and is a technique used in a very wide range of disciplines from biology, chemistry, material science, polymers and biopolymers, to drug design, food science, etc. Although the technique has been around for more than seventy years, it is still in development, both instrumentally with higher magnetic fields, better probes, improving pulse sequences and signal manipulation, and in solid state NMR with higher spinning speeds, and in relation to improving signal to noise ratios. It is the aim to collect a number of contributions covering recent progress both with respect to techniques and to new uses of NMR in its entire range of applications.

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Topic Review
13C Solid-State NMR Application to Waste Composting
13C solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SSNMR) has often been applied to follow the transformation of organic matter during waste composting to produce soil amendments, as well as to assess the quality of the products and the effectiveness of the treatment. 
  • 100
  • 27 Mar 2023
Topic Review
NMR-Based Metabolomics in Food Quality Assessment
The ability of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) to extract chemical information from a complex mixture is invaluable and widely described in literature. Many applications of this technique in the foodomics field have highlighted how NMR could characterize food matrices, and it can be used all along its “life chain”: from farm to fork and from fork to the digestion process. 
  • 193
  • 19 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Functional MRI in Radiology
Although the international community for human brain mapping has met since 1995, the researchers fascinated by human brain function are still young and innovative. However, the impact of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on prognosis and treatment decisions is restricted, even though standardized methods have been developed. The tradeoff between the groundbreaking studies on brain function and the attempt to provide reliable biomarkers for clinical decisions is large. 
  • 186
  • 25 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Synthetic Post-Contrast Imaging through AI. Applications in Neuroimaging
Contrast media are widely diffused in biomedical imaging, due to their relevance in the diagnosis of numerous disorders. However, the risk of adverse reactions, the concern of potential damage to sensitive organs, and the recently described brain deposition of gadolinium salts, limit the use of contrast media in clinical practice. The application of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to biomedical imaging has led to the development of ‘virtual’ and ‘augmented’ contrasts. The idea behind these applications is to generate synthetic post-contrast images through AI computational modeling starting from the information available on other images acquired during the same scan. In these AI models, non-contrast images (virtual contrast) or low-dose post-contrast images (augmented contrast) are used as input data to generate synthetic post-contrast images, which are often undistinguishable from the native ones. 
  • 207
  • 09 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Benzimidazole is an important heterocyclic fragment, present in many biologically active compounds with a great variety of therapeutic purposes. Most of the benzimidazole activities are explained through the existence of 1,3-tautomeric equilibrium. As the binding affinity of each tautomer to a protein target depends on an established bioactive conformation, the effect of tautomers on the ligand protein binding mechanism is determinant.
  • 334
  • 27 Oct 2022
Topic Review
Prognostic Factors in Spica Cast MRI
Closed reduction followed by spica casting is a conservative treatment for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can verify proper closed reduction of the dysplastic hip. The abduction angle is the only influencing factor for improved development of the DDH. No other prognostic factors in MRI measurements, such as gender, age at time of the first spica cast, or treatment involving overhead extension were found to be predictive of mid-term outcome. Mild residual dysplasia in the first follow-up X-ray warrants further observation.
  • 197
  • 26 Sep 2022
Topic Review
Clinical Applications of MR Spectroscopy in Pediatrics
In vivo MR spectroscopy is a non-invasive methodology that provides information about the biochemistry of tissues. It is available as a “push-button” application on state-of-the-art clinical MR scanners. MR spectroscopy has been used to study various brain diseases including tumors, stroke, trauma, degenerative disorders, epilepsy/seizures, inborn errors, neuropsychiatric disorders, and others.
  • 358
  • 01 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Receptor Targeted Molecular Imaging Probes for HCC Theranostics
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the sixth most commonly malignant tumor and the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the world, and the early diagnosis and treatment of patients with HCC is core in improving its prognosis. The early diagnosis of HCC depends largely on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI has good soft-tissue resolution, which is the international standard method for the diagnosis of HCC. However, MRI is still insufficient in the diagnosis of some early small HCCs and malignant nodules, resulting in false negative results. With the deepening of research on HCC, researchers have found many specific molecular biomarkers on the surface of HCC cells, which may assist in diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, molecular imaging has progressed rapidly in recent years, especially in the field of cancer theranostics. Hence, the preparation of molecular imaging probes that can specifically target the biomarkers of HCC, combined with MRI testing in vivo, may achieve the theranostic purpose of HCC in the early stage.
  • 267
  • 02 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Conventional Approaches of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Statistics
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements combined with chemometrics allow achieving a great amount of information for the identification of potential biomarkers responsible for a precise metabolic pathway. These kinds of data are useful in different fields, ranging from food to biomedical fields, including health science. The investigation of the whole set of metabolites in a sample, representing its fingerprint in the considered condition, is known as metabolomics and may take advantage of different statistical tools. The new frontier is to adopt self-learning techniques to enhance clustering or classification actions that can improve the predictive power over large amounts of data.
  • 332
  • 09 May 2022
Topic Review
In Vivo Brain Glutathione
Glutathione (GSH) is an important antioxidant implicated in several physiological functions, including the oxidation−reduction reaction balance and brain antioxidant defense against endogenous and exogenous toxic agents. Altered brain GSH levels may reflect inflammatory processes associated with several neurologic disorders. An accurate and reliable estimation of cerebral GSH concentrations could give a clear and thorough understanding of its metabolism within the brain, thus providing a valuable benchmark for clinical applications. 
  • 311
  • 21 Apr 2022
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