Summary

Organic synthesis is the tool for the preparation of small molecules with interesting biological and medicinal properties—new compounds with activity against diseases affecting humankind today such as cancer, metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative disorders or infectious diseases, as well as new syntheses of known drugs. New bioactive compounds are designed and synthesized to target key metabolic reactions in pathological processes as the first steps toward drug discovery. The crosstalk between synthetic and medicinal chemists enable a high impact of new synthetic methodologies in drug discovery. The aim is to highlight the role that organic synthesis plays in developing methods that may be exploited for finding lead compounds and drugs by the pharmaceutical industry.

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Topic Review
Classification of Various Ligands
Enantioselective gold catalysis has flourished due to its distinct performance. In particular, a series of valuable chiral ligands have been identified, including aryl phosphine ligands bearing the proximal chiral sulfinamide motif, phosphoramidite and phosphonite ligands, phosphine ligands comprising the ferrocene scaffold, bifunctional phosphine ligands, biphosphine ligands, chiral counterion-based ligands derived from chiral phosphoric acids and chiral carbene ligands for gold(I) catalysis, along with unique ligand frameworks for cyclometalated gold(III) catalysis. 
  • 321
  • 25 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Synthesis of Squaraine Dyes
Squaraine dye is a popular class of contrast near-infrared (NIR) dyes. Squaraine dyes have shown the ability to be modified with various heterocycles. The indole moiety is the most notable heterocycle incorporated in squaraine dyes.
  • 439
  • 26 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Biological Activity of Flavones, Flavonols, and Aurones
Flavonoids are a widely distributed group of natural polyphenolic compounds that are found in plants usually in glycosylated form and have been shown to possess a wide range of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and anticancer properties, making them an attractive target for synthesis and further research.
  • 496
  • 12 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Phytocannabinoids, Endocannabinoids and Synthetic Cannabinoids
Generally, the term ‘cannabinoids’ refers to a heterogeneous family of compounds that exhibit activity upon particular human cannabinoid receptors, namely CB1 and CB2. They encompass the natural compounds present in the Cannabis plants, lipid mediators called ECs naturally produced by human cells, as well as by all vertebrates on planet Earth, and the synthetic analogs of both groups designed by scientist, called SCs.
  • 343
  • 01 Sep 2023
Topic Review
Pd-Catalyzed Homogeneous Tandem Processes
Pd-containing catalytic systems for tandem processes have gained special attention due to their enhanced catalytic properties and their possibility of performing several reactions without the necessity of separating the intermediates.
  • 560
  • 24 Aug 2023
Topic Review
Strategies for the Preparation of Phosphorus Janus Dendrimers
Dendrimers, being highly branched monodispersed macromolecules, predominantly exhibit identical terminal functionalities within their structural framework. Nonetheless, there are instances where the presence of two distinct surface functionalities becomes advantageous for the fulfilment of specific properties. To achieve this objective, one approach involves implementing Janus dendrimers, consisting of two dendrimeric wedges terminated by dissimilar functionalities.
  • 545
  • 21 Aug 2023
Topic Review
The Production of Nanotechnology in Agriculture
Nanotechnology has an extensive series of applications in agronomy and has an important role in the future of sustainable agriculture. The agricultural industries should be supported by innovative active materials such as nanofertilizers, nanofungicides, and nanopesticides.
  • 381
  • 21 Jul 2023
Topic Review
Heterogeneous Catalysts Used in Hydrothermal Gasification
Supercritical water gasification has emerged as a promising technology to sustainably convert waste residues into clean gaseous fuels rich in combustible gases such as hydrogen and methane. The composition and yield of gases from hydrothermal gasification depend on process conditions such as temperature, pressure, reaction time, feedstock concentration, and reactor geometry. However, catalysts also play a vital role in enhancing the gasification reactions and selectively altering the composition of gas products. Catalysts can also enhance hydrothermal reforming and cracking of biomass to achieve desired gas yields at moderate temperatures, thereby reducing the energy input of the hydrothermal gasification process. 
  • 503
  • 04 Jul 2023
Topic Review
Biological Activities of Asteltoxins
Asteltoxins belong to a group of polyene pyrone mycotoxins that are known to be potent inhibitors of mitochondrial ATP synthesis and ATP hydrolysis. Asteltoxin A was first isolated from the toxic maize cultures of Aspergillus stellatus. Several attempts have been made to synthesize asteltoxin A, starting with the synthesis of a bis(tetrahydrofuran) moiety that has been demonstrated previously in biosynthetic studies. 
  • 381
  • 14 Jul 2023
Topic Review
Non-Intumescent Flame-Retardant Coating
Fire-retardant coatings, common materials for fire protection of buildings, are widely used in the construction industry. Because they do not change the nature of the matrix, while greatly improving the ability of the matrix to resist flame propagation, they significantly reduce the fire hazard of buildings. Flame-retardant coatings are divided into NIFRC and IFRC , depending on whether the flame-retardant coating expands when heated. NIFRCs are generally composed of inorganic materials that can prevent the return of the heat and oxygen supply to the combustible matrix during the heating process of the polymer and, at the same time, prevent the transfer of combustible gas generated by the pyrolysis of the matrix to the flame, thus protecting the polymer matrix. According to the literature reports, NIFRCs for RPUF mainly include hydrogel/sol, aerogel, ceramic materials, etc.
  • 501
  • 19 Apr 2023
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