With the growth of satellite and airborne-based platforms, remote sensing is gaining increasing attention in recent decades. Every day, sensors acquire data with different modalities and several resolutions. Leveraging on their complementary properties is a key scientific challenge, usually called remote sensing data fusion. Data fusion can be performed at three different processing levels: 1) pixel-based or raw level; 2) object-based or feature level; 3) decision level. Fusion at pixel level is often called image fusion. It means fusion at the lowest processing level referring to the merging of digital numbers or measured physical quantities. It uses co-registered raster data acquired by different sources. The co-registration step is of crucial importance because misregistration usually causes evident artifacts. Fusion at feature level requires the extraction of objects recognized in several sources of data. This is the goal of this entry collection, which will focus both on methodological and practical aspects of remote sensing data fusion.

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Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence Techniques in Surveillance Video Anomaly Detection
The Surveillance Video Anomaly Detection (SVAD) system is a sophisticated technology designed to detect unusual or suspicious behavior in video surveillance footage without human intervention. The system operates by analyzing the video frames and identifying deviations from normal patterns of movement or activity. This is achieved through advanced algorithms and machine learning techniques that can detect and analyze the position of pixels in the video frame at the time of an event.
  • 149
  • 10 May 2023
Topic Review
Grain Quality On-Farm
Grains intended for human consumption or feedstock are typically high-value commodities that are marketed based on either their visual characteristics or compositional properties. The combination of visual traits, chemical composition and contaminants is generally referred to as grain quality.
  • 54
  • 27 Apr 2023
Topic Review
The Key Technologies of Embedded AI
Advancements in artificial intelligence algorithms and models, along with embedded device support, have resulted in the issue of high energy consumption and poor compatibility when deploying artificial intelligence models and networks on embedded devices becoming solvable.
  • 73
  • 27 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Artificial Neural Networks for Navigation Systems
Several machine learning (ML) methodologies are gaining popularity as artificial intelligence (AI) becomes increasingly prevalent. An artificial neural network (ANN) may be used as a “black-box” modeling strategy without the need for a detailed system physical model. It is more reasonable to solely use the input and output data to explain the system’s actions. ANNs have been extensively researched, as artificial intelligence has progressed to enhance navigation performance. In some circumstances, the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) can offer consistent and dependable navigational options. A key advancement in contemporary navigation is the fusion of the GNSS and inertial navigation system (INS). Numerous strategies have been put out to increase the accuracy for jamming, GNSS-prohibited environments, the integration of GNSS/INS or other technologies by means of a Kalman filter as well as to solve the signal blockage issue in metropolitan areas. A neural-network-based fusion approach is suggested to address GNSS outages. 
  • 91
  • 21 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Urban Remote Sensing with Spatial Big Data
During the past decades, multiple remote sensing data sources, including nighttime light images, high spatial resolution multispectral satellite images, unmanned drone images, and hyperspectral images, among many others, have provided fresh opportunities to examine the dynamics of urban landscapes. In the meantime, the rapid development of telecommunications and mobile technology, alongside the emergence of online search engines and social media platforms with geotagging technology, has fundamentally changed how human activities and the urban landscape are recorded and depicted. The combination of these two types of data sources results in explosive and mind-blowing discoveries in contemporary urban studies, especially for the purposes of sustainable urban planning and development. Urban scholars are now equipped with abundant data to examine many theoretical arguments that often result from limited and indirect observations and less-than-ideal controlled experiments. For the first time, urban scholars can model, simulate, and predict changes in the urban landscape using real-time data to produce the most realistic results, providing invaluable information for urban planners and governments to aim for a sustainable and healthy urban future. 
  • 88
  • 14 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Smart Sensing for Aeronautical Applications
Smart sensing for aeronautical applications is a multidisciplinary process that involves the development of various sensor elements and advancements in the nanomaterials field. The expansion of research has fueled the development of commercial and military aircrafts in the aeronautical field. Optical technology is one of the supporting pillars for this, as well as the fact that the unique high-tech qualities of aircrafts align with sustainability criteria.
  • 73
  • 03 Mar 2023
Topic Review
Sensing and Automation Technologies for Ornamental Crops
The ornamental crop industry is an important contributor to the economy in the United States. The industry has been facing challenges due to continuously increasing labor and agricultural input costs. Sensing and automation technologies have been introduced to reduce labor requirements and to ensure efficient management operations. Applications of sensors, computer vision, artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), Internet-of-Things (IoT), and robotic technologies are reported. Some advanced technologies, including 3D cameras, enhanced deep learning models, edge computing, radio-frequency identification (RFID), and integrated robotics used for other cropping systems, are also discussed as potential prospects. Advanced sensing, AI and robotic technologies are critically needed for the nursery crop industry. Adapting these current and future innovative technologies will benefit growers working towards sustainable ornamental nursery crop production.
  • 162
  • 15 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Smart Streets as a Cyber-Physical Social Platform
Smart streets are part of a cyber-physical social infrastructure in the public realm, including data obtained from sensors, the interconnection between different services, technologies and social actors, intelligence derived from analysis of the data, and optimisation of operations within a street. Cyber-physical systems (CPS) integrate computation with physical objects and processes, a literal co-mingling of the physical world and the cyber world (including computation, communication, and control systems). A cyber-physical social platform represents a recent expansion of CPS that bridges the gap between human intelligence and machine intelligence by including a social domain characterised by human participation and interactions.
  • 111
  • 14 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Machine Vision Techniques in Agriculture
Introducing machine vision-based automation to the agricultural sector is essential to meet the food demand of a rapidly growing population. Furthermore, extensive labor and time are required in agriculture; hence, agriculture automation is a major concern and an emerging subject. Machine vision-based automation can improve productivity and quality by reducing errors and adding flexibility to the work process. Primarily, machine vision technology has been used to develop crop production systems by detecting stresses and diseases more efficiently.
  • 179
  • 06 Jan 2023
Topic Review
Network Intrusion Detection Systems Using Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning
The rapid growth of the Internet and communications has resulted in a huge increase in transmitted data. These data are coveted by attackers and they continuously create novel attacks to steal or corrupt these data. The growth of these attacks is an issue for the security of systems and represents one of the biggest challenges for intrusion detection. An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a tool that helps to detect intrusions by inspecting the network traffic. Although many researchers have studied and created new IDS solutions, IDS still needs improving in order to have good detection accuracy while reducing false alarm rates. 
  • 1117
  • 23 Dec 2022
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