Summary

With the growth of satellite and airborne-based platforms, remote sensing is gaining increasing attention in recent decades. Every day, sensors acquire data with different modalities and several resolutions. Leveraging on their complementary properties is a key scientific challenge, usually called remote sensing data fusion. Data fusion can be performed at three different processing levels: 1) pixel-based or raw level; 2) object-based or feature level; 3) decision level. Fusion at pixel level is often called image fusion. It means fusion at the lowest processing level referring to the merging of digital numbers or measured physical quantities. It uses co-registered raster data acquired by different sources. The co-registration step is of crucial importance because misregistration usually causes evident artifacts. Fusion at feature level requires the extraction of objects recognized in several sources of data. This is the goal of this entry collection, which will focus both on methodological and practical aspects of remote sensing data fusion.

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Entries
Topic Review
Estimate Soil Organic Carbon from Remote Sensing
Monitoring soil organic carbon (SOC) typically assumes conducting a labor-intensive soil sampling campaign, followed by laboratory testing, which is both expensive and impractical for generating useful, spatially continuous data products. 
  • 84
  • 27 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Available Agrometeorological Data Sources in Croatia
Precision agriculture (PA) is a data-driven approach to farming that uses a range of ICT solutions—remote sensing, Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI)—to improve and increase crop yields and the profitability of agricultural production, while reducing the amount of resources needed for food production, such as the amount of water, fertilizers, herbicides, and insecticides. Croatia consists of three main geographical regions: the Pannonian and para-Pannonian plains in the north and north-east, the central mountain belt in the west and south, and the Croatian coastal area. The Pannonian plains are the most fertile agricultural regions in Croatia, enriched by alluvial deposits from the Sava and Drava rivers. The central mountain belt offers some arable, meadow, and pasture land, while the coastal region is mostly barren and mountainous with little agricultural land.
  • 89
  • 26 Feb 2024
Topic Review
IoT-Enabled Precision Agriculture
The Internet of Things (IoT) has the potential to revolutionize agriculture by providing real-time data on crop and livestock conditions. As the network becomes denser with a decrease in the network area, there is an increase in network connectivity and a decrease in hop count. In terms of future improvements, incorporating advanced technologies such as machine learning algorithms and edge computing can enhance the performance and scalability of the proposed framework. Additionally, integrating more sophisticated sensor technologies such as drones and cameras can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the farm environment. 
  • 133
  • 02 Feb 2024
Topic Review
Distance Estimation Approach for Maritime Traffic Surveillance
Maritime traffic monitoring systems are particularly important in Mediterranean ports, as they provide more comprehensive data collection compared to traditional systems such as the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which is not mandatory for all vessels.
  • 127
  • 05 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Advances in Non-Invasive Neuromodulation: Closed-Loop Vagus Nerve Stimulation
Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation therapy that eliminates the need for internal device implantation, presenting as a favorable therapeutic option. This method relies on electrical surface stimulation, bypassing the need for surgical procedures.
  • 131
  • 18 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Types of Liquid Crystal Biosensors
Interactions between liquid crystal molecules and target analytes open up various biosensing applications for quick screening and point-of-care applications. There exist different kinds of biosensors, such as electrochemical, wearable, amperometric, potentiometric, optical, impedimetric and thermometric. Liquid crystal (LC) biosensors belong to the type of optical biosensors, which employ its anisotropy and sensitivity to external stimuli. As it is known, LCs are highly sensitive to environment changes, e.g., temperature, electric fields and surface interactions. The inherent property of LCs to respond to external stimuli gives LC biosensors a high potential to contribute to the new biosensing era. 
  • 152
  • 02 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Semi-Supervised Image Stitching from Unstructured Camera Arrays
Image stitching involves combining multiple images of the same scene captured from different viewpoints into a single image with an expanded field of view. While this technique has various applications in computer vision, traditional methods rely on the successive stitching of image pairs taken from multiple cameras. While this approach is effective for organized camera arrays, it can pose challenges for unstructured ones, especially when handling scene overlaps.
  • 191
  • 14 Dec 2023
Topic Review
QoS Monitoring in IoT Edge Devices Driven Healthcare
Smart healthcare is altering the delivery of healthcare by combining the benefits of IoT, mobile, and cloud computing. Cloud computing has tremendously helped the health industry connect healthcare facilities, caregivers, and patients for information sharing. The main drivers for implementing effective healthcare systems are low latency and faster response times. Thus, quick responses among healthcare organizations are important in general, but in an emergency, significant latency at different stakeholders might result in disastrous situations. Thus, cutting-edge approaches like edge computing and artificial intelligence (AI) can deal with such problems. A packet cannot be sent from one location to another unless the “quality of service” (QoS) specifications are met. 
  • 178
  • 17 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Accurate Measurement of Urban Environments
In the field of urban environment analysis research, image segmentation technology that groups important objects in the urban landscape image in pixel units has been the subject of increased attention.
  • 180
  • 10 Nov 2023
Topic Review
Artificial Intelligence in the Diagnosis of Dairy Cows
With the rapid growth of computational power and data transfer capabilities, machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) are also making inroads into animal husbandry and veterinarian research. In particular, Infrared thermography (IRT) is being increasingly used for health monitoring and the diagnosis of dairy cows, especially in studies related to heat stress, which causes severe losses, helping us analyze its effects on nutrition, milk production, reproduction, etc. There is plenty of evidence for the potential benefits of using IRT for monitoring udder health status in dairy cows and for the early detection of mastitis. Its role in detecting hoof lesions and lameness has also been reported. The growth of the population and the increase of quality standards has set a requirement for the production of more and better quality food. The capabilities and potential benefits of IRT make systems for the automatic collection and processing of thermographic information and decision-making particularly important.
  • 193
  • 06 Nov 2023
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