Summary

Sample preparation is the most crucial step in the analytical procedure designed for implementation in any analytical application (food analysis, bionalysis, forensics, toxicology, environmental monitoring etc). It is the limiting factor in chemical analysis since it is time consuming and it can potentially introduce errors. No one can doubt that the best approach would be the direct introduction of the sample to the instrument; however, this is rarely feasible. Efficient sample pretreatment is inevitably required as the instrument technology has produced highly sophisticated and sensitive analytical equipment. Hence, the analytical scientists have to develop and apply a suitable sample preparation protocol that ensures that the composition of the sample remains unchanged, no impurities are introduced during handling, all interferences have been left back, and the analytes’ concentration is not only at detectable levels, but it can also be quantified precisely and accurately and that the matrix of the sample is compatible with the analytical technique. Extraction techniques are the most powerful tool available to analytical chemists and lab practitioners. Whether sorbent-based or solvent-based, extraction techniques provide the necessary tools to handle the sample in a way that can reveal all the important information. All advantages in instrumentation have been exploited to the fullest and the lifetime of the instrument is prolonged in a seamless operation mode. This entry collection aims to highlight some applications of extraction techniques in sample preparation.

Expand All
Topic Review
Integrated Digital Transformation System Framework
Digital transformation is the profound transformation of business and organizational activities, processes, competencies, and models to fully leverage the changes and opportunities of a mix of digital technologies and their accelerating impact across societies in a strategic and prioritized way, with present and future shifts in mind. For instance, an attempt was made to evaluate the present and future research trends in the digitalization of business model innovation.
  • 16
  • 30 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Polypropylene Extrusion Molding Production Quality
Polypropylene is derived from the reaction of petrochemical propylene gas with a density of 0.89–0.94 g/cm3. It is a lightweight plastic material with a semitransparent white color and has a lower cost than other plastic materials.
  • 45
  • 02 Jun 2022
Topic Review
Untargeted Human Milk Metabolomics
Human milk (HM) is considered the gold standard for infant nutrition. HM contains macro- and micronutrients, as well as a range of bioactive compounds (hormones, growth factors, cell debris, etc.). The analysis of the complex and dynamic composition of HM has been a permanent challenge for researchers. The use of novel, cutting-edge techniques involving different metabolomics platforms has permitted to expand knowledge on the variable composition of HM. Here, the state-of-the-art in untargeted metabolomic studies of HM, with emphasis on sampling, extraction and analysis steps is presented.
  • 30
  • 30 May 2022
Topic Review
QuEChERS Application to the Determination of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids
The identification of concerning high levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in a wide variety of food products has raised the occurrence of these natural toxins as one of the main current issues of the food safety field. Consequently, a regulation with maximum concentration levels of these alkaloids has been published to monitor their occurrence in several foodstuffs. According to legislation, the analytical methodologies developed for their determination must include multiresidue extractions with high selectivity and sensitivity, as a set of 21 + 14 PAs should be simultaneously monitored. However, the multiresidue extraction of these alkaloids is a difficult task due to the high complexity of food and feed samples. Accordingly, although solid-phase extraction is still the technique most widely used for sample preparation, the QuEChERS method can be a suitable alternative for the simultaneous determination of multiple analytes, providing green extraction and clean-up of samples in a quick and cost-effective way.
  • 69
  • 12 May 2022
Topic Review
Green Extraction Techniques Applications in Different Fields
Green extraction techniques (GreETs) emerged in the last decade as greener and sustainable alternatives to classical sample preparation procedures aiming to improve the selectivity and sensitivity of analytical methods, simultaneously reducing the deleterious side effects of classical extraction techniques (CETs) for both the operator and the environment. The implementation of improved processes that overcome the main constraints of classical methods in terms of efficiency and ability to minimize or eliminate the use and generation of harmful substances will promote more efficient use of energy and resources in close association with the principles supporting the concept of green chemistry.
  • 54
  • 10 May 2022
Topic Review
Liquid Biopsy, ctDNA Diagnosis through NGS
Liquid biopsy with circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) profiling by next-generation sequencing holds great promise to revolutionize clinical oncology. It relies on the basis that ctDNA represents the real-time status of the tumor genome which contains information of genetic alterations. Compared to tissue biopsy, liquid biopsy possesses great advantages such as a less demanding procedure, minimal invasion, ease of frequent sampling, and less sampling bias. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods have come to a point that both the cost and performance are suitable for clinical diagnosis. Thus, profiling ctDNA by NGS technologies is becoming more and more popular since it can be applied in the whole process of cancer diagnosis and management. 
  • 82
  • 22 Apr 2022
Topic Review
MNPs@QDs
The presence of food contaminants can cause foodborne illnesses, posing a severe threat to human health. Therefore, a rapid, sensitive, and convenient method for monitoring food contaminants is eagerly needed. The complex matrix interferences of food samples and poor performance of existing sensing probes bring significant challenges to improving detection performances. Nanocomposites with multifunctional features provide a solution to these problems. The combination of the superior characteristics of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and quantum dots (QDs) to fabricate magnetic fluorescent quantum dots (MNPs@QDs) nanocomposites are regarded as an ideal multifunctional probe for food contaminants analysis.
  • 62
  • 22 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Fluorescence Microscopy to Aanalyze Lignin
Lignin is one of the most studied and analyzed materials due to its importance in cell structure and in lignocellulosic biomass. Because lignin exhibits autofluorescence, fluorescence microscopy methods have been developed that allow it to be analyzed and characterized directly in plant tissue and in samples of lignocellulose fibers. Compared to destructive and costly analytical techniques, fluorescence microscopy presents suitable alternatives for the analysis of lignin autofluorescence. The existing qualitative methods are Epifluorescence and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy; however, other semi-qualitative methods have been developed that allow fluorescence measurements and to quantify the differences in the structural composition of lignin. The methods are fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy, two-photon microscopy, Föster resonance energy transfer, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching, total internal reflection fluorescence, and stimulated emission depletion. With these methods, it is possible to analyze the transport and polymerization of lignin monomers, distribution of lignin of the syringyl or guaiacyl type in the tissues of various plant species, and changes in the degradation of wood by pulping and biopulping treatments as well as identify the purity of cellulose nanofibers through lignocellulosic biomass.
  • 88
  • 21 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Lemon Verbena (Aloysia citrodora)
Aloysia citrodora (Verbenaceae), an acknowledged medicinal plant, is traditionally used to treat various diseases, including bronchitis, insomnia, anxiety, digestive, and heart problems.
  • 63
  • 21 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Effect of Temperatures on Polyphenols during Extraction
Polyphenols are a set of bioactive compounds commonly found in plants. These compounds are of great interest, as they have shown high antioxidant power and are correlated to many health benefits. Hence, traditional methods of extraction such as solvent extraction, Soxhlet extraction and novel extraction technologies such as ultrasound-assisted extraction and subcritical water extraction (SWE) have been investigated for the extraction of polyphenols.
  • 83
  • 09 Mar 2022
  • Page
  • of
  • 5
>>