Sample preparation is the most crucial step in the analytical procedure designed for implementation in any analytical application (food analysis, bionalysis, forensics, toxicology, environmental monitoring etc). It is the limiting factor in chemical analysis since it is time consuming and it can potentially introduce errors. No one can doubt that the best approach would be the direct introduction of the sample to the instrument; however, this is rarely feasible. Efficient sample pretreatment is inevitably required as the instrument technology has produced highly sophisticated and sensitive analytical equipment. Hence, the analytical scientists have to develop and apply a suitable sample preparation protocol that ensures that the composition of the sample remains unchanged, no impurities are introduced during handling, all interferences have been left back, and the analytes’ concentration is not only at detectable levels, but it can also be quantified precisely and accurately and that the matrix of the sample is compatible with the analytical technique. Extraction techniques are the most powerful tool available to analytical chemists and lab practitioners. Whether sorbent-based or solvent-based, extraction techniques provide the necessary tools to handle the sample in a way that can reveal all the important information. All advantages in instrumentation have been exploited to the fullest and the lifetime of the instrument is prolonged in a seamless operation mode. This entry collection aims to highlight some applications of extraction techniques in sample preparation.

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Topic Review
Securing Internet of Things Applications Using Key Management
The Internet of Things (IoT) emerged when everyday objects began connecting to the Internet and interacting with each other autonomously without human intervention. IoT devices follow the IEEE 802.15.4 standard to enable network connectivity for resource-constrained devices using short-range, lightweight communication protocols.
  • 46
  • 07 Apr 2024
Topic Review
Seaweed Diversity and Bioactive Compounds
Seaweed, a miscellaneous group of marine algae, has long been recognized for its rich nutritional composition and bioactive compounds, being considered nutraceutical ingredient. Seaweeds are abundant sources of essential vitamins, minerals, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and unique secondary metabolites, which reveal a wide range of biological activities. These bioactive compounds possess potential therapeutic properties, making them intriguing candidates for drug leads in various medical applications and pharmaceutical drug development.
  • 190
  • 18 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Palmprint Recognition
Palmprint recognition constitutes a pivotal biometric technology deployed in the identification and verification of individuals, relying on the distinctive patterns inherent in their palmprints. This method, known for its reliability and security, finds extensive applications in diverse fields, including access control, security systems, and forensic investigations. Palmprint image acquisition involves capturing high-quality palmprint images using various devices like cameras, scanners, or smartphones. These images are then subjected to preprocessing techniques, encompassing noise reduction, normalization, and enhancement, to ensure consistent submission despite any restrictions on the availability of materials and/or refined input data. Following preprocessing, relevant features are extracted, like minutiae points specific to an individual’s palm, ridges, and lines. These features are crucial for accurate identification and are obtained through advanced image processing methods.
  • 235
  • 10 Jan 2024
Topic Review
Microextraction Techniques in Lipid Peroxidation Product Detection
Lipid peroxidation, the most aggressive reaction in food, results in the formation of reactive organic compounds that detrimentally impact food sensory qualities and consumers’ health. While controlled lipid peroxidation can enhance flavors and appearance in certain foods, secondary peroxidation products lead to sensory deterioration in a variety of products, such as oils, alcoholic beverages, and meat. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME), solid-phase microextraction (SPME), and gas-diffusion microextraction (GDME). These techniques offer efficient and sensitive approaches to extracting and quantifying lipid oxidation products and contribute to the understanding of oxidative deterioration in various food products. 
  • 201
  • 26 Oct 2023
Topic Review
The Chemical Fingerprint of Fortified Wines
The chemical fingerprint of fortified wines is very complex and fascinating, being constituted by several hundred volatile and non-volatile chemical groups, such as terpenoids, pyrazines, esters, alcohols, acids, furanic compounds, phenolic compounds, and organic acids, among others. These chemical groups were present in fortified wines at different volatilities, polarities, and concentration ranges, from a few ng/L to mg/L. However, the quality of wine also depends on several parameters, such as grape variety, vineyard location, terroir, and vinification conditions (e.g., fermentation, ageing), among others. 
  • 471
  • 12 Jul 2023
Topic Review
Phlorotannins’ Extraction and Isolation
Phlorotannins are moderately hydrophilic components with a wide range of molecular weights, ranging between 126 and 650 kDa. They are produced via the polymerization of the phloroglucinol molecule (benzene-1,3,5-triol) through the polyketide pathway reaction and stored in physodes and/or cell-wall-forming complexes.
  • 543
  • 07 Jul 2023
Topic Review
Extraction Techniques of Brassica By-Products
The Brassica genus (Brassicaceae family) is a large group of primarily herbaceous plants, one of the most important crops after soybean in world oilseed production, and as fresh vegetables, they are widely consumed throughout the year as part of salads or after cooking. This genus includes various types of well-known species such as cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, kale, kohlrabi, pak choi, rape, turnip, mustard, and cress. Brassica plants are also distinguished from other vegetable plants by their high functional (phenolic and organosulfur compounds) and nutritional properties. Food losses and waste reduction are a worldwide challenge involving governments, researchers, and food industries. Therefore, by-product revalorization and the use of key extracted biocompounds to fortify innovative foods seems an interesting challenge to afford.
  • 503
  • 12 May 2023
Topic Review
Contaminant Cocktails of High Concern in Honey
Environmental pollution is a crucial problem in our society, having a better understanding of its consequences, which include the increase of contaminant cocktails present in the environment. The contamination of honeybees can occur through their interaction with the nearby environment. Therefore, if honeybees are previously contaminated, there is a possibility of contamination of their products, such as honey as natural, or minimally processed, product, resulting from the honeybees’ activity.
  • 431
  • 14 Apr 2023
Topic Review
Green Extraction Techniques for Active Ingredients in Tea
The so-called “Green Extraction”—which is based on the design of different extraction processes for the reduction in energy consumption, as well as the usage of alternative solvents and renewable natural materials —was developed.
  • 1.4K
  • 17 Feb 2023
Topic Review
Extracellular Vesicle-microRNAs as Diagnostic Biomarkers in Preterm Neonates
Neonates born prematurely (<37 weeks of gestation) are at a significantly increased risk of developing inflammatory conditions associated with high mortality rates, including necrotizing enterocolitis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.
  • 500
  • 15 Feb 2023
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