Topic Review
Bonded Marine Hoses for Floating Offshore Structures (FOS)
By characterisation, a marine hose is a unique type of flexible riser used in fluid transfer. By definition, a marine hose is simply a fluid transfer conduit utilised in transferring, discharging, loading, and transporting fluids from an oil well to the platform of a floating platform or a floating structure. The fluid transfer system for bonded marine hoses is dependent on floating offshore structures (FOS). Single Point Mooring (SPM) systems are component aspects of the techno-economic design and FOS operation.
  • 749
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Spyros Hirdaris - Hydroelasticity of Ships
As a generic definition, hydroelasticity is the branch of science concerned with the interactions of deformable bodies with the water environment in which they operate. Hydroelasticity as the naval counterpart to aeroelasticity recognizes that at fluid structure interaction level significant differences may exist between the hydrodynamic, inertia, and elastic forces experienced by a floating marine structure. In other words, the fluid pressure acting on the structure modifies its dynamic state and, in return, the motion and distortion of the structure disturb the pressure field around it.
  • 611
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Oil Spill Modeling
Several oil spill simulation models exist in the literature, which are used worldwide to simulate the evolution of an oil slick created from marine traffic, petroleum production, or other sources. These models may range from simple parametric calculations to advanced, new-generation, operational, three-dimensional numerical models, coupled to meteorological, hydrodynamic, and wave models, forecasting in high-resolution and with high precision the transport and fate of oil. This study presents a review of the transport and oil weathering processes and their parameterization and critically examines eighteen state-of-the-art oil spill models in terms of their capacity (a) to simulate these processes, (b) to consider oil released from surface or submerged sources, (c) to assimilate real-time field data for model initiation and forcing, and (d) to assess uncertainty in the produced predictions. Based on our review, the most common oil weathering processes involved are spreading, advection, diffusion, evaporation, emulsification, and dispersion. The majority of existing oil spill models do not consider significant physical processes, such as oil dissolution, photo-oxidation, biodegradation, and vertical mixing. Moreover, timely response to oil spills is lacking in the new generation of oil spill models. Further improvements in oil spill modeling should emphasize more comprehensive parametrization of oil dissolution, biodegradation, entrainment, and prediction of oil particles size distribution following wave action and well blow outs.
  • 486
  • 02 Mar 2021
Topic Review Peer Reviewed
Tsunami Alert Efficiency
“Tsunami Alert Efficiency” is the rapid, accurate and reliable conduct of tsunami warning messaging, from the detection of potential tsunamigenic earthquakes to dissemination to all people under threat, and the successful survival of every person at risk on the basis of prior awareness and preparedness.
  • 367
  • 13 Apr 2022
Topic Review
Battery-Driven Fast Marine Vehicles
Entry of the design and technological challenges of zero emission, battery driven fast marine vehicles. Whereas slow and medium speed all electrical ships have been successfully introduced, it remains to prove that fast battery driven ships are feasible. The entry addresses the key design and technological issues, assesses the present state of the art and of the associated technology and concludes on the way ahead.
  • 321
  • 23 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Automation System to Autonomous System
Autonomy is the core capability of future systems, and architecture design is one of the critical issues in system development and implementation. To discuss the architecture of autonomous systems in the future, this paper reviews the developing progress of architectures from automation systems to autonomous systems. Firstly, the autonomy and autonomous systems in different fields are summarized. The article classifies and summarizes the architecture of typical automated systems and infer three suggestions for building an autonomous system architecture: extensibility, evolvability, and collaborability. Accordingly, this paper builds an autonomous waterborne transportation system, and the architecture is composed of the object layer, cyberspace layer, cognition layer, and application layer, the proposed suggestions made in the construction of the architecture are reflected in the inter-relationships at all layers. Through the cooperation of four layers, the autonomous waterborne transportation system can autonomously complete the system functions, such as system control and transportation service. In the end, the characteristics of autonomous systems are concluded, from which the future primary research directions and the challenges of autonomous systems are provided. 
  • 309
  • 17 Jun 2021
Topic Review
Organic Coatings for Marine Applications
Organic coatings for marine applications must have great corrosion protection and antifouling performance. This review presents an overview of recent investigations into coating microstructure, corrosion protection performance, antifouling behavior, and evaluation methods, particularly the substrate effect and environmental influence on coating protectiveness, aiming to improve operational practice in the coating industry. 
  • 303
  • 21 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Ship Handling in Unprotected Waters
In order to implement a new type of escort towing, specially designed to be employed in very adverse weather conditions, considerable changes in the hull form of escort tugs had to be made to improve their stability and performance. Since traditional winch and ropes technologies were only effective in calm waters, tugs had to be fitted with new devices. These improvements allowed the remodeled tugs to counterbalance the strong forces generated by the maneuvers in open waters. This entry presents a review of the new high-performance automatic dynamic winches.
  • 271
  • 26 Mar 2021
Topic Review
Triboelectric Nanogenerator
First proposed by Wang in 2012, the triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG, also called Wang generator) derived from Maxwell’s displacement current shows great prospect as a new technology to convert mechanical energy into electricity, based on the triboelectrification effect and electrostatic induction. TENGs present superiorities including light weight, cost-effectiveness, easy fabrication, and versatile material choices. The concept of harvesting blue energy using the TENG and its network was first brought out in 2014. As a new form of blue energy harvester, the TENG surpasses the EMG in that it intrinsically displays higher effectiveness under low frequency, owing to the unique feature of its output characteristics. Moreover, adopting the distributed architecture of light-weighted TENG networks can make it more suitable for collecting wave energy of high entropy compared with EMGs, which are oversized in volume and mass.
  • 244
  • 13 Sep 2021
Topic Review
OTEC plant impact on Chiapas
Despite the proved potential to harness ocean energy off the Mexican coast, one of the main aspects that have restrained the development of this industry is the lack of information regarding the environmental and social impacts of the devices and plants. Under this premise, a review of literature that could help identifying the potential repercussions of energy plants on those fields was performed. The available studies carried out around the world show a clear tendency to use indicators to assess impacts specifically related to the source of energy to be converted. The information gathered was used to address the foreseeable impacts on a hypothetical case regarding the deployment of an Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plant off the Chiapas coast in Mexico. From the review it was found that for OTEC plants, the most important aspect to be considered is the discharge plume volume and its physicochemical composition, which can lead to the proliferation of harmful algal blooms. Regarding the case study, it is interesting to note that although the environmental impacts need to be mitigated and monitored, they can be somehow alleviated considering the potential social benefits of the energy industry.
  • 241
  • 12 Nov 2020
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