Topic Review
Passive Constant Flow Regulators
Passive flow control regulators, also known as passive flow control or autoregulated or pressure-compensated valves, deliver, without external control and energy consumption, a constant flow rate regardless of pressure variations.
  • 773
  • 22 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Unlicensed Massive Machine Type Communications
Machine-type communications (MTC) is a non-human centric concept introduced under the umbrella of IoT for the future communications technology, 5G, which can support a high number of connectivity in the network and can provide different quality of services.
  • 755
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Internet of Everything (IoE) Taxonomies
The paradigm of the Internet of everything (IoE) is advancing toward enriching people’s lives by adding value to the Internet of things (IoT), with connections among people, processes, data, and things. This paper provides a survey of the literature on IoE research, highlighting concerns in terms of intelligence services and knowledge creation. The significant contributions of this study are as follows: (1) a systematic literature review of IoE taxonomies (including IoT); (2) development of a taxonomy to guide the identification of critical knowledge in IoE applications, an in-depth classification of IoE enablers (sensors and actuators); (3) validation of the defined taxonomy with 50 IoE applications; and (4) identification of issues and challenges in existing IoE applications (using the defined taxonomy) with regard to insights about knowledge processes.
  • 740
  • 27 Jan 2021
Topic Review
The Interband Cascade Laser
The interband cascade laser (ICL) has recently become the go-to coherent optical source for applications in the mid-wave infrared spectral band (especially 3–6 μm) that require high efficiency, low drive power, and small system footprint. The ICL combines a relatively long upper-level lifetime, characteristic of semiconductor interband transitions, with the voltage-efficient cascading scheme originally introduced for the quantum cascade laser (which employs intersubband transitions to produce light). Following the first room-temperature (RT) continuous wave (cw) operation in 2008, ICLs have operated in cw mode up to 118 ºC, produced > 500 mW of cw power at RT, displayed wallplug efficiencies up to 18% for RT cw operation, and operated in cw mode at RT to wavelengths as long as 6 µm. The low ICL drive power, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude less than is required for a quantum cascade laser (QCL), is especially important in applications such as portable battery- or solar-powered laser spectroscopy systems that require a small footprint. Distributed-feedback (DFB) ICLs emitting in a single spectral mode have generated up to 55 mW of cw power at RT, and have operated at wavelengths as long as 6.6 µm. Newer device classes include ICL frequency combs, interband cascade vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, interband cascade LEDs, interband cascade detectors, and ICLs incorporated into photonic integrated circuits.
  • 626
  • 22 Sep 2020
Topic Review
Single-Zone HVAC Systems
Single-zone HVAC systems are installed in most residential buildings, which implies regulating all the rooms of the house with a single thermostat and with static ventilation registers.
  • 625
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Applications of Wireless Sensor Networks
A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is a group of spatially dispersed sensor nodes, which are interconnected by using wireless communication. The purpose of this entry is to provide an up-to-date presentation of both traditional and most recent applications of WSNs and hopefully not only enable the comprehension of this scientific area but also facilitate the perception of novel applications.
  • 503
  • 28 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Information and Communication Technology
Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is seen as a way to enhance knowledge collection in the construction sector. Although the theoretical benefits of ICT implementation have been clarified, realizing such benefits is insufficient. This paper attempted a systematic analysis of the literature using ATLAS.ti 9 software to save, identify, and analyze this study’s data. A total of 102 articles were actively reviewed, including 82 Scopus journals and 20 conference papers published from 2003 to 2020. In this article, from a construction industry point of view, the ICT adoption process is considered as an interaction between technology, task, and an individual from a construction industry perspective. While ICT is acknowledged as a source of aggressive gain by both practitioners and scholars, ICT’s sole presence would definitely not guarantee achievement in the industry’s ICT approval. Companies cannot grasp the full benefits of ICT, except that users are able to adopt the technology. Hence, the issues related to ICT adoption need to be examined.
  • 476
  • 13 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Lower Limb Joint Kinematics
The use of inertial measurement units (IMUs) has gained popularity for the estimation of lower limb kinematics. However, implementations in clinical practice are still lacking. This review shows that methods for lower limb joint kinematics are inherently application dependent. Sensor restrictions are generally compensated with biomechanically inspired assumptions and prior information. Awareness of the possible adaptations in the IMU-based kinematic estimates by incorporating such prior information and assumptions is necessary, before drawing clinical decisions. Future research should focus on alternative validation methods, subject-specific IMU-based biomechanical joint models and disturbed movement patterns in real-world settings.
  • 445
  • 01 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Indoor Positioning
The indoor positioning system (IPS) is becoming increasing important in accurately determining the locations of objects by the utilization of micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) involving smartphone sensors, embedded sources, mapping localizations, and wireless communication networks. 
  • 442
  • 14 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Robust Outlier-Adaptive Filtering
With the advent of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), a major area of interest in the research field of UAVs has been vision-aided inertial navigation systems (V-INS). In the front-end of V-INS, image processing extracts information about the surrounding environment and determines features or points of interest. With the extracted vision data and inertial measurement unit (IMU) dead reckoning, the most widely used algorithm for estimating vehicle and feature states in the back-end of V-INS is an extended Kalman filter (EKF). An important assumption of the EKF is Gaussian white noise. In fact, measurement outliers that arise in various realistic conditions are often non-Gaussian. A lack of compensation for unknown noise parameters often leads to a serious impact on the reliability and robustness of these navigation systems. To compensate for uncertainties of the outliers, we require modified versions of the estimator or the incorporation of other techniques into the filter. The main purpose of this paper is to develop accurate and robust V-INS for UAVs, in particular, those for situations pertaining to such unknown outliers. Feature correspondence in image processing front-end rejects vision outliers, and then a statistic test in filtering back-end detects the remaining outliers of the vision data. For frequent outliers occurrence, variational approximation for Bayesian inference derives a way to compute the optimal noise precision matrices of the measurement outliers. The overall process of outlier removal and adaptation is referred to here as “outlier-adaptive filtering”. Even though almost all approaches of V-INS remove outliers by some method, few researchers have treated outlier adaptation in V-INS in much detail. Here, results from flight datasets validate the improved accuracy of V-INS employing the proposed outlier-adaptive filtering framework.
  • 439
  • 30 Oct 2020
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