Topic Review
Chrysler Minivan (AS)
The second-generation Chrysler minivans are a series of minivans that were manufactured and marketed by Chrysler Corporation in North America and Europe from 1991 to 1995. Officially designated the AS platform by Chrysler, the second-generation minivans were again sold in passenger and cargo configurations by the Chrysler, Plymouth, and Dodge divisions. Launched in late 1990 for the 1991 model year, the second-generation minivans were an extensive revision of the first-generation chassis and body. The model range became the first minivans offered with driver-side airbags (1991) and with optional integrated child safety seats (1992). While adding all-wheel drive as an option for the first time, the AS platform would also mark the last offering of a manual transmission. As with its predecessor, Chrysler assembled second-generation minivans at Windsor Assembly in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, with additional production at Saint Louis (North) Assembly in Fenton, Missouri from 1990 to 1994. In 1992, to supplement exports from the United States, the Chrysler Voyager began production in Graz, Austria (in the Eurostar joint venture factory between Chrysler and Steyr-Daimler-Puch). For the 1996 model year, the AS-generation minivans were replaced by the NS platform, marking the first complete redesign of the Chrysler minivans since their introduction.
  • 5
  • 28 Nov 2022
Topic Review
City Car
A city car (also known as urban car or a mini) is a small car designed to be used primarily in urban areas and conurbations. The term is used along with other terms for small cars including subcompact in North America. The Euro NCAP calls all small cars superminis. The European Commission refers to A-segment (Utility/city class: entry level small passenger car). In Japan , the kei car is a specific type of small car. The term microcar is loosely used for very small cars, some of which overlap city car classification.
  • 21
  • 01 Nov 2022
Topic Review
Classification Techniques
Eight classification techniques, including Multi-Layered Perceptron (MLP), Gaussian Naïve Bayes (NB), Logistic Regression (LR), Decision Tree classifier (DT), K-Nearest Neighbor classifier (KNN), Random Forest classifier (RF), Support Vector Machine classifier (SVM), and AdaBoost (AB) were applied to model and predict the CC-SoC. Moreover, these methods were employed to compare the performance of different classifiers and obtain the highest possible accuracy. The classifiers were briefly explained in this section.
  • 188
  • 24 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Classifying Travel Mode Choice through Adjustable SVM Model
The investigation of travel mode choice is an essential task in transport planning and policymaking for predicting travel demands. Typically, mode choice datasets are imbalanced and learning from such datasets is challenging. This study deals with imbalanced mode choice data by developing an algorithm (SVMAK) based on a support vector machine model and the theory of adjusting kernel scaling.
  • 178
  • 24 Dec 2021
Topic Review
COVID-19 Effect on Supply Chains
The COVID-19 pandemic has generated disruptions in supply chains, traveling, businesses, and a loss of human lives that is being accounted for at least five million diseased. When the pandemic started, uncertainties, the lockdown of countries, and stay-at-home orders generated that millions of people made runs to grocery stores to buy essential products, the most distinctive being hygiene tissue, antibacterial formulations, and hand sanitizers. Then workers in essential processes in the medical, food, and manufacturing industries had to restart work to keep supply chains running. That generated further repercussions due to the infection of workers in multiple facilities, which created more considerable uncertainties. Universities and schools were mandated to close, and work-from-home orders were enacted in most sectors. In this entry, a summary of the essential factors, current situation, and future perspective regarding the effect generated by COVID-19 on the disruptions of supply chains is presented. The strategic sectors summarized are food and produce, transportation, paper products, chemicals and pharmaceuticals, medical supplies, automobiles, minerals and technology companies. At two years since the WHO declaration, there are still shockwaves that show some unpredictability. Hence, companies and governments should look for strategical plans for preparing for this kind of event, making supply chains resilient or even immune to pandemics, natural disasters and trade wars.
  • 412
  • 22 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Design of Sustainable Flexible Pavement
The conventional methodologies for the design of flexible pavements are not adequate in providing solutions that meet the diverse sustainability challenges. Therefore, developing new methodologies and frameworks for the design of flexible pavement has become a priority for most highway agencies. On the other hand, there is no sound sustainable flexible pavement framework at the design phase that considers the key engineering performance, environmental impact, and economic benefits of sustainability metrics. Hence, premature failure of flexible pavements has become a common problem leading to a growing demand for sustainable pavement. Pavement engineers need to have access to tools that permit them to design flexible pavements capable of providing sustainable solutions under various complex scenarios and uncertainties.
  • 297
  • 10 Jan 2022
Topic Review
Diamond-Like Carbon Films
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have been extensively applied in industries owing to their excellent characteristics such as high hardness. In particular, there is a growing demand for their use as protective films for mechanical parts owing to their excellent wear resistance and low friction coefficient. DLC films have been deposited by various methods and many deviate from the DLC regions present in the ternary diagrams proposed for sp3 covalent carbon, sp2 covalent carbon, and hydrogen. Consequently, redefining the DLC region on ternary diagrams using DLC coatings for mechanical and electrical components is urgently required. Therefore, we investigate the sp3 ratio, hydrogen content, and other properties of 74 types of amorphous carbon films and present the classification of amorphous carbon films, including DLC. We measured the sp3 ratios and hydrogen content using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure and Rutherford backscattering-elastic recoil detection analysis under unified conditions. Amorphous carbon films were widely found with nonuniform distribution. The number of carbon atoms in the sp3 covalent carbon without bonding with hydrogen and the logarithm of the hydrogen content were inversely proportional. Further, we elucidated the DLC regions on the ternary diagram, classified the amorphous carbon films, and summarized the characteristics and applications of each type of DLC.
  • 936
  • 28 Sep 2021
Topic Review
Dimethyl Ether Fuel
Dimethyl ether (DME), like hydrogen, can be used as an activator in the combustion process, affecting its course. A higher rate of hydrogen and DME combustion accelerates the natural gas combustion initiation process, and should also have an effect on liquid petroleum gas (LPG) combustion. Both these gaseous fuels are currently used extensively to power motor vehicles.
  • 88
  • 12 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Driving Cycles for Estimating Vehicle Emission Levels
Standard driving cycles (DCs) and real driving emissions (RDE) legislation developed by the European Commission contains significant gaps with regard to quantifying local area vehicle emission levels and fuel consumption (FC). The aim of this paper was to review local DCs for estimating emission levels and FC under laboratory and real-world conditions. This review article has three sections.
  • 206
  • 12 Nov 2021
Topic Review
Early Injection for Low Emissions
Low-emission and high-efficiency have always been the targets for Internal Combustion Engine development. For diesel engines, homogeneous charge (aka. HCCI) and premixed charge (aka. PCCI) combustion modes provide both low-emission and high-efficiency simultaneously. To achieve these advanced combustion modes, early injection is needed as a relatively longer air-fuel mixing time is guaranteed. Several key parameters, such as the injection timing, pressure, angle, directly determine the final combustion process and thus the emission and efficiency performance. The pros and cons of these key parameters are discussed in detail here to provide a good review of the early-injection strategy.
  • 1068
  • 28 Oct 2020
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