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Zrikem, M.; Hasnaoui, I.; Elassali, R. Blockchain Integration in Vehicle-to-Everything and IoT for Transportation. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48541 (accessed on 18 June 2024).
Zrikem M, Hasnaoui I, Elassali R. Blockchain Integration in Vehicle-to-Everything and IoT for Transportation. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48541. Accessed June 18, 2024.
Zrikem, Maria, Inas Hasnaoui, Rajaa Elassali. "Blockchain Integration in Vehicle-to-Everything and IoT for Transportation" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48541 (accessed June 18, 2024).
Zrikem, M., Hasnaoui, I., & Elassali, R. (2023, August 28). Blockchain Integration in Vehicle-to-Everything and IoT for Transportation. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/48541
Zrikem, Maria, et al. "Blockchain Integration in Vehicle-to-Everything and IoT for Transportation." Encyclopedia. Web. 28 August, 2023.
Blockchain Integration in Vehicle-to-Everything and IoT for Transportation
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As smart transportation systems evolve, secure and efficient Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication between vehicles and infrastructure becomes crucial. A Vehicle-to-Blockchain (V2B) communication architecture is introduced, leveraging blockchain technology for transparent and decentralized interactions. Researchers' contributes to the integration of blockchain into V2X and IoT for next-generation transportation systems. Researchers propose several novel blockchain use cases, including a blockchain-based vehicle ownership system based on the multi-token standard, a vehicle scoring system, blockchain-IoT integration, and a decentralized ticket management system for transportation services. The architecture addresses key aspects such as data integration, validity, secure messaging, and introduces a decentralized payment system and marketplace for transportation in smart cities. Researchers specifically emphasize the technical implementation of smart contracts for these use cases, underscoring their role in ensuring robust and reliable interactions. Through decentralized approach, researchers pave the way for a transformative transportation ecosystem that is adaptable, resilient, and capable of meeting the evolving needs of smart cities.

V2B blockchain communication smart contracts IOT V2X Transportation

1. Vehicle Communication in Smart Transportation

In the context of smart transportation, vehicle communication plays a vital role in enabling efficient and intelligent transportation systems [1]. It involves the exchange of information and data between vehicles, infrastructure, and other entities, facilitating coordination, decision making, and enhancing overall transportation performance. This subsection provides an overview of the different types of vehicle communication and their applications in the realm of smart transportation.
Vehicle communication encompasses various modes of communication, including Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X), Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication.
  • Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communication refers to the exchange of information between vehicles and their surrounding environment. It encompasses communication between vehicles, infrastructure, pedestrians, and cloud-based services. V2X communication enables vehicles to obtain real-time information about their surroundings and share their own data, fostering cooperative driving, situational awareness, and the realization of intelligent transportation systems [1][2].
  • Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communication focuses on the direct communication between nearby vehicles. It allows vehicles to exchange critical data, such as speed, location, acceleration, and trajectory information. V2V communication enables cooperative maneuvers, such as platooning, where vehicles travel in close proximity to improve traffic flow, fuel efficiency, and safety. It also facilitates collision avoidance systems, cooperative perception, and distributed decision making among vehicles [1][3][4].
  • Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication involves the exchange of information between vehicles and roadside infrastructure. This type of communication enables vehicles to interact with traffic lights, road signs, toll booths, and other infrastructure components. V2I communication supports various applications, including traffic management, signal prioritization, and intelligent transportation systems. By providing vehicles with up-to-date information from the infrastructure, V2I communication contributes to optimized routing, reduced congestion, and improved overall transportation efficiency [1][5].
  • Vehicle-to-Network (V2N) communication involves the exchange of data between vehicles and the communication networks they are connected to. V2N communication enables vehicles to access network services and resources, facilitating connectivity to cloud platforms, Internet of Things (IoT) devices, and other online services. It allows vehicles to upload and download data, receive software updates, and utilize advanced network-based applications. V2N communication is crucial for vehicle connectivity, enabling services such as remote diagnostics, Over-the-Air (OtA) updates, and cloud-based analytics [1].
  • Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) communication focuses on the interaction between electric vehicles (EVs) and the power grid infrastructure. It allows EVs to communicate with the grid, enabling bidirectional energy flow. V2G communication enables EVs to not only draw power from the grid but also to inject power back into the grid. This capability opens up opportunities for Vehicle-to-Grid integration, where EVs can serve as distributed energy resources and contribute to grid stability, load balancing, and renewable energy integration. V2G communication facilitates energy management, charging coordination, and grid services, promoting a more sustainable and efficient energy ecosystem [6][7].
The integration of advanced communication technologies and protocols has opened up a wide range of applications for vehicle communication in smart transportation. These applications include real-time traffic management, congestion control, intelligent routing, collision avoidance, autonomous driving, and efficient transportation planning [1][8][9][10].
Overall, vehicle communication serves as the foundation for building interconnected transportation systems, allowing vehicles to communicate with each other and their environment. By enabling the seamless exchange of information, vehicle communication enhances transportation safety, efficiency, and sustainability.

2. Evolution of Internet of Thing in Transportation Systems

The evolution of IoT (Internet of Things) in transportation systems has revolutionized the way researchers perceive and manage urban mobility. By leveraging the capabilities of IoT technologies, transportation systems have become smarter, more efficient, and sustainable. This subsection explores the key advancements and applications of IoT in transportation systems, highlighting its role in enhancing traffic management, optimizing public transportation, and improving overall mobility.
The integration of IoT technology in transportation systems has facilitated the collection, analysis, and utilization of real-time data from various sources, including traffic lights, public transportation systems, and private vehicles. This data-driven approach has led to significant improvements in traffic management and congestion reduction strategies. Real-time traffic monitoring systems, equipped with IoT sensors and devices, enable the continuous monitoring of traffic flow, congestion hotspots, and incident detection. Such systems provide valuable insights for traffic management authorities to optimize traffic signal timings, reroute traffic, and implement dynamic congestion pricing strategies to alleviate traffic congestion.
Furthermore, IoT has played a pivotal role in optimizing public transportation systems. Smart transportation solutions powered by IoT enable the real-time tracking of buses, trains, and other modes of public transportation. This enables commuters to access accurate and up-to-date information regarding arrival times, delays, and route changes. Passengers can make informed decisions about their travel plans, reducing waiting times and enhancing the overall commuter experience. IoT-enabled ticketing systems and fare collection devices offer seamless and contactless payment options, simplifying the process for passengers and enhancing the efficiency of fare collection.
The evolution of IoT in transportation systems has also led to advancements in safety and environmental sustainability. IoT sensors and devices integrated into vehicles and infrastructure enable the collection of data on vehicle performance, road conditions, and environmental factors. These data can be used to enhance road safety by providing real-time alerts and warnings to drivers about potential hazards, such as accidents, slippery roads, or poor visibility. Additionally, IoT technology enables the monitoring of vehicle emissions, facilitating the development of eco-friendly transportation policies and promoting the adoption of electric and hybrid vehicles.
To address the challenges associated with privacy and security in IoT-enabled transportation systems, blockchain-based solutions have been proposed. Blockchain technology offers decentralized and tamper-proof transactional records, enhancing data security and privacy management in the context of social Internet of Vehicles (IoV) scenarios [11]. It also provides a scalable framework for secure transactions in IoT, ensuring the integrity and confidentiality of data exchanges [12]. Furthermore, the combination of blockchain and IoT data analytics has been explored for fine-grained transportation insurance, enabling more accurate risk assessment and personalized insurance policies [13].
The evolution of IoT in transportation systems has revolutionized urban mobility, offering improved traffic management, optimized public transportation, and enhanced overall transportation experiences. With the continued advancements in IoT technologies and the integration of emerging technologies like blockchain, transportation systems are poised to become even smarter, greener, and more efficient.

3. Vehicle-to-Everything Challenges

While vehicle communication offers significant benefits, it also faces several challenges that need to be addressed for effective implementation in smart transportation systems. This subsection highlights key challenges and research directions in the field of vehicle communication.
  • Trust and Security: Establishing trust and ensuring security in vehicle communication systems are crucial. Trust is required to validate the authenticity and reliability of data exchanged between vehicles and other entities. Security measures are necessary to protect against unauthorized access, data tampering, and malicious activities that could compromise the integrity and privacy of the communication system [14].
  • Ownership Proof: Validating ownership and proving the authenticity of data is essential in vehicle communication systems. Without a reliable mechanism to establish ownership, the trustworthiness of the exchanged data and the identity of the communicating vehicles may be compromised.
  • Data Integration and Validity: In smart transportation systems, data are generated and exchanged by various stakeholders, such as vehicles, traffic management systems, and infrastructure. Ensuring seamless integration and validity of data across different sources and systems is a challenge. Data integrity and consistency must be maintained to enable accurate decision making and efficient coordination between vehicles and infrastructure.
  • Global System for Vehicles Worldwide: With the increasing connectivity of vehicles, there is a need for a global communication system that allows interoperability and seamless communication among vehicles from different manufacturers and regions. Standardizing communication protocols and ensuring compatibility across diverse systems and technologies is a complex task.
  • Payment Issues: Efficient and secure payment systems are crucial for various services in smart transportation, such as toll collection, parking, and electric vehicle charging. Ensuring smooth and secure payment transactions while considering factors such as privacy, reliability, and interoperability presents a significant challenge.
  • Scalability and Reliability: As the number of connected vehicles increases, the scalability and reliability of communication networks become crucial. The network infrastructure must handle the growing volume of data traffic, maintain low-latency communication, and ensure reliable connectivity even in challenging environments or during emergencies [9].
Addressing these challenges is vital to unlocking the full potential of vehicle communication systems in smart transportation. Solutions that leverage advanced technologies, such as blockchain, are being explored to overcome these challenges and enable more efficient and secure vehicle communication networks.

4. Blockchain Technology in Web3

The concept of blockchain technology originated with the publication of Satoshi Nakamoto’s white paper on Bitcoin, which introduced the idea of a decentralized peer-to-peer electronic cash system [15]. Since then, blockchain technology has evolved to encompass various platforms and applications beyond cryptocurrency.
Ethereum, introduced by Vitalik Buterin, expanded the capabilities of blockchain by introducing smart contracts and a decentralized application (DApp) platform [16]. Smart contracts are self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement directly written into the code. They enable decentralized applications to operate in a transparent, tamper-proof, and trustless manner.
In the Web3 paradigm, blockchain technology provides a foundation for building decentralized applications that operate on distributed networks. These applications leverage the features of blockchain, such as immutability, transparency, and decentralized consensus, to enable new forms of digital interactions and eliminate the need for intermediaries.
Various platforms and frameworks have emerged to support the development of Web3 applications. Ethereum remains one of the most prominent platforms, providing a Turing-complete virtual machine for executing smart contracts [16][17]. Other platforms, such as Polkadot, Cardano, and Solana, offer different approaches to scalability, interoperability, and governance within the Web3 ecosystem.
Blockchain technology in Web3 extends beyond financial applications. It has the potential to disrupt industries such as supply chain management, healthcare, voting systems, and decentralized finance (DeFi). By leveraging blockchain’s inherent properties, these applications aim to enhance security, transparency, and efficiency.
Researchers have also explored privacy-preserving mechanisms for smart contracts. The Hawk protocol, proposed by Kosba et al., presents a blockchain model of cryptography that ensures privacy in smart contract execution [18]. This approach enables the execution of sensitive computations on public blockchains while preserving the confidentiality of the inputs and outputs.
Blockchain technology in Web3 is a rapidly evolving field, with ongoing research and development focusing on scalability, interoperability, and governance. It has the potential to transform the way researchers interact with digital systems, providing a decentralized and transparent foundation for a wide range of applications in the Web3 era [19].
In the context of smart transportation, blockchain technology in Web3 holds great promise for addressing the challenges in V2X communication and enabling innovative solutions. One of these applications is V2B (Vehicle-to-Blockchain) communication, which will be explored in the next section. By leveraging blockchain’s decentralized and transparent nature, V2B aims to enhance the efficiency, security, and trustworthiness of interactions between vehicles in smart transportation systems.

4. Proposed Architecture: Vehicle-To-Blockchain

In this section, researchers delve into the proposed architecture for Vehicle-To-Blockchain (V2B) communication, which plays a pivotal role in the evolution of smart transportation systems. The V2B concept revolves around vehicles interacting with blockchain technology, forming a robust foundation for secure and transparent communication within the transportation ecosystem.

  • Blockchain-Based Vehicle Ownership: Blockchain technology revolutionizes vehicle ownership by digitizing crucial information like manufacturer marks and production years. This digitization ensures authenticity and validity, reducing the risk of counterfeit or unauthorized marks. Each vehicle is assigned a unique digital identity, securely recorded on the blockchain, allowing for transparent tracking of ownership transfers. Utilizing ERC1155 NFTs for ownership representation adds a layer of security and comprehensive information storage.
  • Vehicle Scoring System: The integration of a scoring system enhances road safety and accountability by tracking and recording traffic violations associated with each vehicle and driver. This system incentivizes responsible driving while helping stakeholders assess risk. Smart contracts play a critical role in the technical implementation of these features.
  • Blockchain-Based Ticket Management for V2X: Researchers introduce a blockchain-based ticket management system for the travel industry, encompassing ticket reservation and real-time availability checking. This system extends its application to taxi services and bus travel, utilizing smart contracts to automate and secure ticket-related operations.
  • Data Integration and Validity: Blockchain ensures global data integration, validates shared data, maintains the immutability of recorded transactions, and accurately timestamps actions within the V2X communication ecosystem. This integration guarantees data reliability and transparency, fostering effective communication among vehicles, infrastructure, and other stakeholders.
  • Blockchain-IoT Integration: Integrating blockchain with IoT devices enhances penalty enforcement, information validation, real-time monitoring, and secure messaging in V2X communication. The use of smart contracts automates penalty enforcement for rule violations, while blockchain ensures data validation and integrity. Real-time monitoring and secure messaging enhance communication and situational awareness.
  • Decentralized Payment System for Transportation in Smart Cities: A decentralized payment system utilizing blockchain technology eliminates reliance on centralized systems, offering secure, efficient, and cost-effective payment options for transportation services. It also facilitates a decentralized marketplace for peer-to-peer vehicle transactions, enhancing transparency and trust in vehicle purchases within smart cities.

References

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  2. Chen, S.; Hu, J.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, R.; Fang, J.; Shi, Y.; Xu, H. V2X Network Architecture and Standards System. In Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X), 1st ed.; Springer: Singapore, 2023; pp. 81–116.
  3. U.S. Department of Transportation, NHTSA. FMVSS No. 150 Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication Technology for Light Vehicles. 2016. Available online: https://www.nhtsa.gov/sites/nhtsa.gov/files/documents/v2v_pria_12-12-16_clean.pdf (accessed on 1 April 2023).
  4. Chen, Y.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, W. MPC-based Time Synchronization Method for V2V (Vehicle-to-Vehicle) Communication. Res. Sq. 2023, 1, 0002.
  5. U.S. Department of Transportation, ITS. Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) Resources. ITS Deployment. 2020. Available online: https://www.its.dot.gov/v2i (accessed on 30 May 2023).
  6. Zhou, Z.; Wang, B.; Dong, M.; Ota, K. Secure and efficient vehicle-to-grid energy trading in cyber physical systems: Integration of blockchain and edge computing. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. Syst. 2020, 50, 43–57.
  7. Widodo, S.; Hasegawa, T.; Tsugawa, S. Vehicle fuel consumption and emission estimation in environment-adaptive driving with or without inter-vehicle communications. In Proceedings of the IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium 2000 (Cat. No.00TH8511), Dearborn, MI, USA, 5 October 2000; pp. 382–386.
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  12. Biswas, S.; Sharif, K.; Li, F.; Nour, B.; Wang, Y. A scalable blockchain framework for secure transactions in IoT. IEEE Internet Things J. 2019, 6, 4650–4659.
  13. Li, Z.; Xiao, Z.; Xu, Q.; Sotthiwat, E.; Goh, R.S.M.; Liang, X. Blockchain and IoT data analytics for fine-grained transportation insurance. In Proceedings of the 2018 IEEE 24th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS), Singapore, 11–13 December 2018; pp. 1022–1027.
  14. Huang, J.; Fang, D.; Qian, Y.; Hu, R.Q. Recent advances and challenges in security and privacy for V2X communications. IEEE Open J. Veh. Technol. 2020, 1, 244–266.
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