Topic Review
Anemia in Kawasaki disease
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute childhood vasculitis syndrome that affects the walls of both small- and medium-sized blood vessels (vasculitis), especially coronary arteries. Anemia is a common clinical feature in KD patients and is thought to have a more prolonged duration of active inflammation. In this review, we will discuss the anemia in KD, possibility of hemolysis, the necessity of iron supplementation and importance of anemia in the pathogenesis of KD.
  • 931
  • 05 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Childhood Asthma
Asthma is a complex and multifactorial respiratory disease with a high prevalence in the pediatric population. Variation in treatment response to asthma therapies has been described among patients, and difficult-to-treat asthma carries both high healthcare and socioeconomic burden to the patients and society. Omic studies can be used to discover the molecular mechanisms underlying asthma susceptibility and treatment response, contributing to a better knowledge and definition of asthma pathogenesis and therefore, to the development of precision medicine. This entry aims to summarize the recent findings of omic studies of treatment response in childhood asthma. Between 2018-2019 a total of 13 omic studies has been performed involving genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, and the microbiome. These have been focused on the response to three common asthma medications: short-acting beta agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Novel associations of different biomarkers with asthma treatment response have been described. However, stronger evidence and more consistent results are required to implement these molecular biomarkers into clinical practice by establishing the most appropriate therapy for each patient.
  • 662
  • 29 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Clive John Petry
This is a biography of Dr. Clive Petry, from the University of Cambridge.
  • 480
  • 10 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Aneurysm prevention in Kawasaki Disease
 A form of systemic vasculitis that affects mostly small and medium-sized vessels, Kawasaki disease (KD) is most commonly found in children under the age of 5 years old. Though its etiology is unknown, KD has been the most frequent acquired heart disease in developing countries. The most severe complications of KD are coronary artery lesions (CAL), including dilation, fistula, aneurysm, arterial remodeling, stenosis, and occlusion. Aneurysm formation has been observed in 20-25% of KD patients that do not receive intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment, and in 3-5% that do receive it. Coronary artery dilation has been found in about 30% of KD patients in the acute stage, although mostly in the transient form. Diminishing the occurrence and regression of aneurysm is a vital part of treating KD. This review is focuing on coronary artery aneurysm prevention in KD.
  • 472
  • 02 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Steroid-Induced Iatrogenic Adrenal Insufficiency
This entry focuses on steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency (SIAI) in children and discusses the latest findings by surveying recent studies. SIAI is a condition involving adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol suppression due to high doses or prolonged administration of glucocorticoids. While its chronic symptoms, such as fatigue and loss of appetite, are nonspecific, exposure to physical stressors, such as infection and surgery, increases the risk of adrenal crisis development accompanied by hypoglycemia, hypotension, or shock. The low-dose ACTH stimulation test is generally used for diagnosis, and the early morning serum cortisol level has also been shown to be useful in screening for the condition. 
  • 401
  • 20 Jan 2021
Topic Review
Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) disorder, characterized by polyfocal symptoms, encephalopathy and typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, that especially affects young children. Advances in understanding CNS neuroimmune disorders as well as the association of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody (MOG-Ab) with both monophasic and recurrent forms of ADEM have led to new insights into its definition, management and outcome.
  • 361
  • 23 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Paroxysmal Movement Disorders
Paroxysmal movement disorders (PMDs) are rare neurological diseases typically manifesting with intermittent attacks of abnormal involuntary movements.
  • 306
  • 06 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Whole Goat Milk Formula
Whole goat milk can be used as a source of protein, fat and lactose to manufacture infant, follow-on and young child formulas. The use of whole goat milk without adjustment of the whey:casein ratio results in a formula with an average of 50% of its lipids from goat milk fat, supplying palmitic acid (including at the sn-2 position), short and medium chain fatty acids, milk fat globule membrane and cholesterol.
  • 299
  • 24 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Second-Hand and Prenatal Tobacco Smoke
Children are commonly exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS) in the domestic environment or inside vehicles of smokers. Unfortunately, prenatal tobacco smoke (PTS) exposure is still common, too. SHS is hazardous to the health of smokers and non-smokers, but especially to that of children. SHS and PTS increase the risk for children to develop cancers and can trigger or worsen asthma and allergies, modulate the immune status, and is harmful to lung, heart and blood vessels. Smoking during pregnancy can cause pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes as well as changes in the development of the foetus. Lately, some of the molecular and genetic mechanisms that cause adverse health effects in children have been identified. It has been found in children that SHS and PTS exposure is associated with changes in levels of enzymes, hormones, and expression of genes, micro RNAs, and proteins. PTS and SHS exposure are major elicitors of mechanisms of oxidative stress. Genetic predisposition can compound the health effects of PTS and SHS exposure. Epigenetic effects might influence in utero gene expression and disease susceptibility. Hence, the limitation of domestic and public exposure to SHS as well as PTS exposure has to be in the focus of policymakers and the public in order to save the health of children at an early age. Global substantial smoke-free policies, health communication campaigns, and behavioural interventions are useful and should be mandatory.
  • 280
  • 06 Nov 2020
Topic Review
AI and General movements (GMs)
       General movements (GMs) are spontaneous movements of infants up to five months post-term involving the whole body varying in sequence, speed, and amplitude. The assessment of GMs has shown its importance for identifying infants at risk for neuromotor deficits, especially for the detection of cerebral palsy. As the assessment is based on videos of the infant that are rated by trained professionals, the method is time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence have gained significantly increased attention in the last years.
  • 253
  • 18 Feb 2021
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