Topic Review
Melanogenesis
Melanogenesis is the biological and biochemical process of melanin and melanosome biosynthesis. Melanin is formed by enzymic reactions of tyrosinase family proteins that convert tyrosine to form brown-black eumelanin and yellow-red pheomelanin within melanosomal compartments in melanocytes, following the cascades of events interacting with a series of autocrine and paracrine signals. Fully melanized melanosomes are delivered to keratinocytes of the skin and hair. In humans, eumelanin and pheomelanin are mixed together regardless of the pigmentary phenotype. The ratio of the two melanin pigments is determined by race and/or specific genetic variations. On the other hand, many mammals have various patterns of hair coat color that can be changed temporally. Wild type mice have agouti pattern hair caused by a mechanism, called pigment-type switching.
  • 2871
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Spirulina for Skin Care
Spirulina stands out as a sustainable bioactive microalga with health-promoting properties, and an important active ingredient of natural cosmetics products. 
  • 903
  • 05 Feb 2021
Topic Review
Morphea
Morphea, also known as localized scleroderma (LoS), comprises a set of autoimmune sclerotic skin diseases. It is characterized by inflammation and limited thickening and induration of the skin; however, in some cases, deeper tissues might also be involved. Although morphea is not considered a life-threatening disease, the apparent cosmetic disfigurement, functional or psychosocial impairment affects multiple fields of patients' quality of life. Therapy for LoS is often unsatisfactory with numerous treatments that have only limited effectiveness or considerable side effects.
  • 616
  • 12 Aug 2021
Topic Review
Extrusion Bioprinting for Skin Applications
Skin is a large and complex organ that serves protective and regulatory functions and is responsible for communication between the external environment and the inner organism. To fulfill these functions, skin has evolved as an organ with a complex anatomy derived from both the ectoderm (epidermis) and mesoderm (dermis). The skin includes not only these two major compartments but also important appendages, including hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands, nerve endings, and blood vessels, all of which have intricate spatial arrangements that render fabrication of the full skin organ challenging.
  • 565
  • 26 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Mechanotransduction in Skin and Wounds
Skin injury is a common occurrence and mechanical forces are known to significantly impact the biological processes of skin regeneration and wound healing. Immediately following the disruption of the skin, the process of wound healing begins, bringing together numerous cell types to collaborate in several sequential phases. These cells produce a multitude of molecules and initiate multiple signaling pathways that are associated with skin disorders and abnormal wound healing, including hypertrophic scars, keloids, and chronic wounds. Studies have shown that mechanical forces can alter the microenvironment of a healing wound, causing changes in cellular function, motility, and signaling. A better understanding of the mechanobiology of cells in the skin is essential in the development of efficacious therapeutics to reduce skin disorders, normalize abnormal wound healing, and minimize scar formation.
  • 496
  • 30 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Tyrosinase and Melanogenesis Inhibition
Melanin is a widespread natural pigment that is responsible for color in hair, skin, and eyes. It provides protection against the deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Melanogenesis is the physiological process of melanin formation in which TYR, a copper-dependent enzyme, initiates the first step. Tyrosinase catalyzes the rate-limiting step where L-tyrosine is converted to L-3,4,-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), leading to the eventual formation of the pigment.
  • 496
  • 27 Oct 2020
Topic Review
Skin Substitutes
The skin plays an important role in the maintenance of the human's body physiological homeostasis. It acts as a coverage that protects against infective microorganism or biomechanical impacts. Skin is also implied in thermal regulation and fluid balance. However, skin can suffer several damages that impede normal wound-healing responses and lead to chronic wounds. Since the use of autografts, allografts, and xenografts present source limitations and intense rejection associated problems, bioengineered artificial skin substitutes (BASS) have emerged as a promising solution to address these problems. The advances that have been produced on tissue engineering techniques have enabled improving and developing new arising skin substitutes. Despite this, currently available skin substitutes have many drawbacks, and an ideal skin substitute has not been developed yet. The translation of cell‐based arising skin substitutes to clinical application represents one of the critical challenges on tissue engineering and it has to be overcome with the aim of offering each patient the more efficient therapy that fits with his clinical case and allows him having a good quality of life.
  • 413
  • 19 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Lipid Metabolism and Melanoma Progression
Melanoma is a devastating skin cancer characterized by an impressive metabolic plasticity. Melanoma cells are able to adapt to the tumor microenvironment by using a variety of fuels that contribute to tumor growth and progression. In this review, the authors summarize the contribution of the lipid metabolic network in melanoma plasticity and aggressiveness, with a particular attention to specific lipid classes such as glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, sterols and eicosanoids. They also highlight the role of adipose tissue in tumor progression as well as the potential antitumor role of drugs targeting critical steps of lipid metabolic pathways in the context of melanoma.
  • 392
  • 13 Nov 2020
Topic Review
Daylight Photodynamic Therapy
Daylight photodynamic therapy (dPDT) uses sunlight as a light source to treat superficial skin cancer. Using sunlight as a therapeutic device has been present for centuries, forming the basis of photodynamic therapy in the 20th century. Compared to conventional PDT, dPDT can be a less painful, more convenient and an effective alternative. The first clinical uses of dPDT on skin cancers began in Copenhagen in 2008. Currently, aminolevulinic acid-mediated dPDT has been approved to treat actinic keratosis patients in Europe.
  • 371
  • 13 Dec 2020
Topic Review
Candida Albicans in Psoriasis
Psoriasis is a T cell-mediated skin disease resulting from epithelial and immunological cells’ interactions, which affects around 2% of the population worldwide. Its onset is influenced by genetic and environmental factors, particularly infections among which Streptococcus pyogenes is the best characterized. However, the commensal fungus Candida albicans has been also associated to triggering psoriasis. Here we discuss what it is known about the link betweeen Candida and psoriasis pathogenesis.
  • 354
  • 22 Sep 2021
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