Topic Review
Tafazzin in Mitochondrial Function, Development and Disease
Tafazzin, an enzyme associated with the rare inherited x-linked disorder Barth Syndrome, is a nuclear encoded mitochondrial transacylase that is highly conserved across multiple species and plays an important role in mitochondrial function. 
  • 45
  • 15 Jul 2022
Topic Review
18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in Atherosclerosis
18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a glucose analogue and the most-validated radiotracer for imaging high metabolically active inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages) and tissues (e.g., atherosclerotic plaques) in animal models and humans [10]. The results have proven to be reproducible and modifiable via interventions that are anti-inflammatory [11]. FDG-PET imaging may mirror inflammatory activity in atherosclerosis due to the consumption of large amounts of glucose by inflammatory cells compared to other plaque cells.
  • 130
  • 28 Oct 2021
Topic Review
2D and 3D Echo in Mitral Stenosis
Mitral stenosis is an important cause of heart valve disease globally. Echocardiography is the main imaging modality used to diagnose and assess the severity and hemodynamic consequences of mitral stenosis as well as valve morphology. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is sufficient for the management of most patients.
  • 95
  • 15 Dec 2021
Topic Review
3D Printing in Complex Medical Procedures
Medicine is a rapidly-evolving discipline, with progress picking up pace with each passing decade. This constant evolution results in the introduction of new tools and methods, which in turn occasionally leads to paradigm shifts across the affected medical fields. The following review attempts to showcase how 3D printing has begun to reshape and improve processes across various medical specialties and where it has the potential to make a significant impact. 
  • 94
  • 18 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Acute Coronary Syndromes and Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) induces a process of systemic inflammation, sharing common ground with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Growing evidence points towards a possible association between IBD and an increased risk of ACS.
  • 101
  • 15 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes superficial and invasive infections and immune mediated post-infectious sequalae (including acute rheumatic fever/rheumatic heart disease). Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) are important determinants of global cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. ARF is a multiorgan inflammatory disease that is triggered by GAS infection that activates the innate immune system. In susceptible hosts the response against GAS elicits autoimmune reactions targeting the heart, joints, brain, skin, and subcutaneous tissue. Repeated episodes of ARF—undetected, subclinical, or diagnosed—may progressively lead to RHD, unless prevented by periodic administration of penicillin. The modified Duckett Jones criteria with stratification by population risk remains relevant for the diagnosis of ARF and includes subclinical carditis detected by echocardiography as a major criterion. Chronic RHD is defined by valve regurgitation and/or stenosis that presents with complications such as arrhythmias, systemic embolism, infective endocarditis, pulmonary hypertension, heart failure, and death.
  • 51
  • 07 Jul 2022
Topic Review
Advanced Glycation End Products and Cardiovascular Disease
Epidemiological studies demonstrate the role of early and intensive glycemic control in the prevention of micro and macrovascular disease in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Hyperglycemia elicits several pathways related to the etiopathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including the generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). 
  • 219
  • 11 Mar 2022
Topic Review
Advanced Monitoring Technologies
Heart failure (HF) is characterized by a progressive course of disease accompanied by recurrent exacerbations leading to high hospitalization and rehospitalization rates, which account for a substantial part of the disease load. Among the elderly, acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is the leading cause of hospitalization. The 30-day rehospitalization rate following the first admission to the hospital for HF exacerbation is 22–29.4%, which is the most common amongst all other etiologies.
  • 109
  • 29 Oct 2021
Topic Review
Aftermath of the COVID-19 Crisis in Saudi Arabia
Since late 2019, the number of COVID-19 patients has gradually increased in certain regions as consecutive waves of infections hit countries. Whenever this wave hits the corresponding areas, the entire healthcare system must respond quickly to curb the diseases, morbidities, and mortalities in intensive care settings. The healthcare team involved in COVID-19 patients’ care must work tirelessly without having breaks. Our understanding of COVID-19 is limited as new challenges emerge with new COVID-19 variants appearing in different world regions. Though medical therapies are finding solutions to deal with the disease, there are few recommendations for respiratory rehabilitation therapies. A group of respiratory rehabilitation care professionals in Saudi Arabia and international experts have agreed with the World Health bodies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) on the treatment and rehabilitation of patients with COVID-19. Professionals participating in COVID-19 patient treatment, rehabilitation, and recovery formulated respiratory rehabilitation guidelines based on the DELPHI Method, combining scientific research and personal practical experience. As a result, it is envisaged that the number of individuals in the region suffering from respiratory ailments due to post-COVID-19 will decrease. 
  • 98
  • 02 Dec 2021
Topic Review
Age-Related Diseases
Aging is a multifactorial dynamic process that is influenced by a variety of external and internal variables, including environmental, demographic, and biopsychosocial factors, to determine the development and progression of age-related diseases, rather than being a solely static intrinsic process of cellular alterations.
  • 173
  • 15 Apr 2021
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